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published through Spain’s Open Data portal) was made up of over 350 companies, collectively employing over 4,000 people and generating €4,500-€500m. 48 In 2016, Spain was the ranked top in the EDP’s Open Data Maturity Assessment. 49 Its portal owners have focussed on specific impacts, namely ‘developing value around Open Data’ by ‘harmonising the demand and offer in public administrations… and working with the private sector to develop business’. Developing evidence of how it achieves these has been vital to making the business case for Open Data - and therefore to winning further support and increasing sustainability. Portals whose staff lack the skills, capacity or inclination to assess their data’s impacts internally should commission this research from independent organisations. When combined with existing insights, this can help to guide decisions around funding and resource provision. 48 Spanish Open Data Portal, 2014, Characterization Study of the Infomediary Sector 49 European Data Portal, 2016, Open Data Maturity in Europe 2016: Insights into the European state of play 34

5. Architecture How Open Data is stored, published and made available varies across Open Data portals. While Open Data portals tend to be set up at the beginning of an Open Data initiative (see the Governance section), with financing for portal architecture (see the Finance section), sustainability is not necessarily a key consideration when choosing a software solution. Nonetheless, as Open Data initiatives mature and data services and technologies evolve, ensuring your portal architecture is still fit for purpose and able to withstand service and funding changes becomes harder. This section explores the Open Data portal architectures that are in place in the kinds of portals explored for this report. It also considers best practice and makes recommendations for organisations looking to establish their own Open Data portal or upgrade an existing one. The term ‘Open Data portal’ is often used synonymously with phrases like ‘Open Data platform’, ‘Open Data catalogue’ and ‘Open Data repository’. This can make describing the nuances of architecture behind ‘Open Data portals’ difficult. We have adopted the terminology used in OpenDataMonitor (2014) 50 to help distinguish between the different options for storing, hosting, and publishing Open Data via a portal. A list of definitions can be found in Annex I. Main recommendations to make the portal architecture more sustainable Select open source software solutions, and solutions that offer archiving/downloading options for all data published via the portal Contribute to the development of standard APIs, that could be used across all Open Data platforms, for sharing, summarising and presenting data Build links to data held in other portals into yours, where they could be relevant for your local users Even if not responsible for the publication and maintenance of data, research your user needs and their preferred data formats to drive data improvements Build upon recognised standards to foster interoperability and comparability of metadata across Europe 50 OpenDataMonitor, 2013, Open Data topologies, catalogues and metadata harmonisation 35

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