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28 self-employed

28 self-employed persons, the characteristics of the national labour market (e.g. the incidence of self-employment across sectors and occupations of the economy), and the degree of enforcement against false self-employment. While the exemption of self-employed persons from employment restrictions affects all member states that opt to impose the transitional controls, the nature of the labour markets and degrees of enforcement vary across countries and over time. In other words, the effectiveness of transitional controls as tools that enable EU countries to tightly regulate the labour market outcomes and effects of migrants from new Member States is always likely to be limited as well as variable across countries and over time.

29 References Anderson, B. and Ruhs, M. (2010) “Migrant workers: who needs them? A framework for the analysis of shortages, immigration and public policy”, Chapter 2 in Ruhs, Martin, and Bridget Anderson eds. 2010. Who needs migrant workers? Oxford: Oxford University Press. Anderson, B., Ruhs, M., Rogaly, B. and S. Spencer (2006) Fair enough? Central and East European migrants in low-wage employment in the UK, Report published by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation (JRF) Apgar, L. 2015. ‘Authorized status, limited returns. The labour market outcomes of temporary Mexican workers’, EPI Briefing paper, Economic Policy Institute, Washington DC Autor, D., (2003), “Outsourcing at Will: The Contribution of Unjust Dismissal Doctrine to the Growth of Employment Outsourcing”, Journal of Labor Economics, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 1-42. Bailey, T. 1985. ‘The influence of legal status on the labor market impact of immigration, International Migration Review, vol. 19(2), pp. 220-238 Bansak, C. 2005. ‘The differential wage impact of the Immigration Reform and Control Act on Latino ethnic subgroups’, Social Science Quarterly, vol. 86 (supplement), pp. 1279-1298 Bansak, C. and S. Raphael. 2001. ‘Immigration reform and the earnings of Latino workers: Do employer sanctions cause discrimination?’, Industrial and Labor Relations Review, vol. 54(2), pp 275-295 Borjas, G. and M. Tienda. 1993. ‘The Employment and Wages of Legalized Immigrants’, International Migration Review 27: 712-747. Calavita, K. 1992. Inside the State: The Bracero Program, Immigration and the INS, Routledge, New York Chiswick, B. 1984. ‘Illegal aliens in the United States labor market: An analysis of occupational attainment and earnings’, International Migration Review, vol.18, pp 714-32 Costello, C. and E. Hancox. 2014. ‘The UK, EU Citizenship and Free Movement of Persons’, Migration Observatory Policy Primer, COMPAS, Oxford DeGenova, N. 2002. ‘Migrant ‘illegality’ and deportability in everyday life’, Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 31, pp419-47 Fasani, F. 2015. ‘Understanding the Role of Immigrants’ Legal Status: Evidence from Policy Experiments’, CESifo Economic Studies, Volume 61, Issue 3-4, pp. 722-763. Gautie, J. and J. Schmitt eds. 2010. Low-Wage Work in the Wealthy World, Russel Sage Gower and Hawkins 2013, http://researchbriefings.parliament.uk/ResearchBriefing/Summary/SN06606#fullreport

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