28 self-employed persons, the characteristics of the national labour market (e.g. the incidence of self-employment across sectors and occupations of the economy), and the degree of enforcement against false self-employment. While the exemption of self-employed persons from employment restrictions affects all member states that opt to impose the transitional controls, the nature of the labour markets and degrees of enforcement vary across countries and over time. In other words, the effectiveness of transitional controls as tools that enable EU countries to tightly regulate the labour market outcomes and effects of migrants from new Member States is always likely to be limited as well as variable across countries and over time.
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