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Open Educational Resources


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ehearsing and shooting—the fruit of brilliant hunches or of counsels of despair, of lethargy, conspiracy and sweat.” 30 One will find, to bear out Fitzgerald, that a typical two-hour feature film can have as many as 5,000 different shots, all told, edited together—and a typical feature-length documentary, which will present much more licensed content, as many as 2,000. 31 Perhaps that complexity can best be visualized itself in an annotated moving-image illustration that explores the anatomy of a media production—and visualizes the sources and online uses for those sources together. As the annotated video, below, notes, the number and types of existing/potential creative and economic/property stakeholders involved in the professional production of media—in this case, a clip of a professionally produced educational documentary for public broadcasting—are numerous; licensing experts in public media have calculated that there can be as many almost 80 different rightsholders for a single minute of a finished public television documentary. 32 30 F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Last Tycoon (New York: Scribners, 1941). Or what Neal Gabler, in his biography of Walt Disney and Disney studios, calls “the nervousness” that accretes from “years of imagining, scrutinizing, retelling, fiddling, mobilizing, and pushing.” Neal Gabler, Walt Disney: The Triumph of the American Imagination (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2006), p. 272. The anatomy of rich media is now getting the attention it deserves. Music, film and television are being parsed for their so-called genomic structures to improve online search, retrieval, and recommendation engines for their further consumption—via the algorithms that power the businesses of such companies as Pandora, Netflix, and Google. “At the heart of Pandora,” Pandora writes, “are over 400 individual attributes or ‘genes’ for songs and a complex algorithm for organizing them. Each of the songs from Pandora’s database — in 2006, over 400,000 songs over 20,000 artists — has been assessed manually — requiring the company’s operators to spend a minimum of 20 minutes of assessment per 4 minutes of song.” Even the characteristics of books—that old medium—are being analyzed this way now. http://www.;; http://,003,515; See also:;; http://www.theverge. com/2016/2/17/11030200/netflix-new-recommendation-system-global-regional; http://www. One day, the powerful algorithms at work toward these commercial objectives may be turned on education and the exploration of culture. Netflix, it is said, has “the ability to ‘personalize’ its interactions with its 81 million customers” (Joe Nocera, “Can Netflix Survive in the New World It Has Created? New York Times Magazine, June 15, 2016, online at: can-netflix-survive-in-the-new-world-it-created.html). Will educational and culture need to stay far behind? Note, in this context, calls for an “AV Archive Genomic Decoder” and an “Openometer Use- A-Tron” in Peter B. Kaufman, “Assessing the Audiovisual Archive Market: Approaches to Audiovisual Content Exploitation” for PrestoCentre, online at: assessing-audiovisual-archive-market. 31;; http://www.; see the case study of Ric Burns’s “Warhol” at: http://www.cinemetrics. lv/movie.php?movie_ID=5977. 32 Author interviews with Joe Basile, Thirteen/WNET, December 8, 2009, and “Eyes on the Prize” clearance attorney Sandra Forman, July 26, 2016. 16 MOOCS AND OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES: A Handbook for Educators

ILLUSTRATION I: The Anatomy of a Video Clip These rightsholders include talented individuals, companies, bands and other groups whose work is audible and visible on the screen, and who often have business contracts with producers and distributors describing the compensation and credits they receive and the rights they have licensed to their work for specific media uses (television, radio, DVD, online, for example) and, even in this networked world, certain, delineated territories (such as North America or Japan). And, in the United States anyway, unions and guilds that engage in collective bargaining with networks and producers often represent them to determine the appropriate pay scales and more general equity participation on behalf of their members. Video stakeholders subject to American Federation of Television and Radio Artists (AFTRA) engagement agreements include actors, singers, dancers, and producers; subject to Writers Guild of America (WGA) employment agreements include scriptwriters; subject to Directors Guild of America (DGA) employment agreements include directors; subject to American Federation of Music (AFM) employment agreements include songwriters and lyricists; composers and arrangers; musicians and music publishers; and possibly subject to various additional collective bargaining agreements include producers, cinematographers and cameramen, film and video editors, animators, voice narrators, choreographers, artists, designers, engineers, consultants, and other staff. The collective bargaining agreements they have negotiated on behalf of their clients, and II. THE ANATOMY OF EDUCATIONAL VIDEO 17

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