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Open Educational Resources


printed, in

printed, in matriculation materials for universities and handbooks for visitors at other cultural and educational institutions. C. Post-production While determinations about rights and licenses should take place as early as possible in the MOOC production timeline and simultaneously with all the possible stakeholders in a MOOC’s success, the accomplishment of some of the critical licensing work often takes place after the conclusion of principal photography, in the post-production stage. Video editors and university faculty and staff collaborate during this phase to make sure that video-recorded lectures can be illustrated to the satisfaction of the university and key faculty members—and also that other material used for teaching and learning in the MOOC platform learning sequence—the MOOC timeline—or elsewhere online is made properly available to students. Because of our current system of copyright and intellectual property rights, material that gets photographed, to use the term, for online courses, or scanned or copied or in some way reproduced for distribution, must be assembled with an eye toward having permission from any and all rightsholders to so duplicate and distribute them. In part, of course, that network of pre-permitted content redistribution is what Creative Commons has been designed to deliver—patching together, song and online course and image and sonnet at a time, the great public encyclopedia available to anyone with a screen and a speaker. To make a truly open encyclopedia, one would have to use ILLUSTRATION IV: A MOOC Timeline (from Eric Foner’s online course, “The Civil War and Reconstruction”) 30 MOOCS AND OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES: A Handbook for Educators

material that is, in effect, free—free as in speech, not free as in beer—which is to say licensed via the most liberal Creative Commons licenses or in the public domain. And to make a truly open course, the same would apply—as a complete course can be only as free as the least free element within it. As universities become producers—like Disney, Sony, MGM—and adopt production sensibilities that augment their longstanding roles as publishers and hubs for important research, they will be well served if they import best some practices from the professional production community. 53 Nowhere is this truer than in the field of licensing and permissions. Public television broadcasters like Thirteen/WNET in New York, for example, which began its existence as an educational broadcaster, deploy sophisticated RIGHTS & CLEARANCES GRID - RELEASES AND ACQUIRED MATERIALS Series Title: Episode #: Program Title: Original Broadcast Date: Prepared By (name, extension): Approved By (executive producer): DESCRIPTION Briefly describe the release and/or material acquired: (A) If it’s a release, is it for an appearance, location, materials or something else? (B) If it’s a license, is the material acquired a photo, still, transparency, audio, footage, or something else? (C) If it’s footage, from what film/program did It come, and how long is it (in seconds)? SOURCE Record the name, address, phone number, email address and contact person of the owner/licensor of the acquired material or the entity/person signing the release. AMOUNT PAID Indicate total fee. Is it: (1) a flat fee or (2) a rate calculated by time or market? Indicate if fee is broken down by distribution markets. Specify options, if any. DISTRIBUTION MARKET(S) CLEARED (e.g., PTV broadcast, all forms of TV, home entertainment, non-theatric/audio visual, digital, streaming, some combination thereof, or something else) Specify options and restrictions, if any. TERRITORY & TERM Indicate territory (place(s) where project is being distributed) and term (time period(s) in which project is being distributed) for each distribution market cleared. ILLUSTRATION V: Rights & Clearance Grid / Towards a Rights Bible 53 In his account of the making of “Snow White,” itself an early step (1937) in what is now a mature industry, Walt Disney biographer Neal Gabler speaks of the sheer organizational prowess achieved in the studio and the resulting “collaboration of the nearly six hundred employees who drew, inked, and painted the quarter-million drawings in what totaled two hundred years’ worth of man-hours.” That was for one film. In the studio that Disney envisioned and built next, “production would flow smoothly downward from the third floor, where Walt had his office in Wing H next to the story department and where the films were initiated; to the second floor, where the directors and layout men divided the feature stories into sequences, devising the staging of the scenes, and eventually screened the roughs in the sweatboxes located there; to the first floor, where some two hundred to three hundred animators were separated into groups under head animators in each wing to do the actual drawings; to the basement, where the test camera was housed and the roughs were shot.” With its commissary, snack bar, penthouse buffet, roof deck, barbershop, gym, and theater, “the studio had been modeled after a college campus.” Gabler, Walt Disney, pp. 273, 323. III. RIGHTS, LICENSES, AND ACCESS: Producing MOOCs as OER 31

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