Designing Sports Compression Garments with Controlled Pressure Kristina Brubacher Since the first Modern Olympic Games in 1896, athletic performance has grown faster than natural human evolution due to a combination of global and technological developments as well as training interventions. In more recent years, performance growth has plateaued in many sports with only diminutive discrepancies between elite athletes leading to an increased use of ergogenic aids, such as sports compression garments (SCGs). SCGs are believed to improve exercise performance, shorten recovery and prevent injuries through pressure application. The applied pressure level is affected by a number of factors, including the wearer’s body shape and movement as well as garment and fabric characteristics. These aspects have been neglected by existing research, which is dominated by studies in the sports science field. As a consequence, the SCG-body-relationship is not well understood and pressure levels vary across different individuals and sizes. This study addresses this problem by developing a process model that facilitates the design development of women’s SCGs with controlled pressure. A multi-method quantitative research strategy using an inductive approach has been applied with data drawn from an online survey, wearer trials and garment and textile analyses to inform the process model. For SCGs to have a life changing effect on athletes, they need to provide a significant physiological advantage. A prerequisite for physiological effects is the application of controlled pressure by SCGs, which the outcome of this study will enable. This study, thus, has the potential to improve functionality of SCGs and through this athletes’ performance. The North West’s Early Motor Clubs Josh Butt Today motor vehicles are ubiquitous. Yet at the end of the 19 th century motoring was a new pastime, and there were only a few hundred motorised vehicles on the road. Many believed motoring to be a fad and motorists faced opposition on many fronts, from local corporations, the police and rural residents. However over the next few decades motoring would grow exponentially, changing how people thought about transport. Regional clubs were often described as promoting motoring in the “provinces”. However, the activities of the North West’s motor clubs were much more complex than this, with several diverse interest groups. For example, the Liverpool Self- Propelled Traffic Association (LSPTA) was formed by Liverpool businessmen who saw motoring as an opportunity to break the railway companies’ and the Manchester Ship Canal’s monopoly of Lancashire’s haulage economy. The LSPTA evolved to champion the cause of the commercial vehicle, organising internationally renowned heavy traffic trials. Yet at their formation they faced both ridicule and opposition. At the same time the North-West’s cycling clubs were grappling with the arrival of the automobile; some, like the Manchester Wheelers, formed motor sections to cater for members changing interests. While clubs such has the Manchester Motor Club had a large trade presence amongst its members. This paper will draw on source including motoring periodicals, local newspapers and images to examine those organisations that formed in the North West to support motoring. It presents an original angle to inform our understanding of early motoring and late Victorian society.
Nurses lived experiences of professional accountability and its impact upon patient care: A Hermeneutical Study. Lorna Chesterton Professional accountability in nursing is considered to be the foundation of nursing practice and governs the individual’s professional standards and responsibilities (NMC 2015). Recent high profile reports into poor care have highlighted a negative organisational culture in the NHS and have questioned the extent to which these ideals in reality impact upon patient care (Francis 2013, Berwick 2013, Winterbourne 2012). Against this backdrop, using the philosophies of Martin Heidegger and Hans-Georg Gadamer this study has taken a Hermeneutical approach to explore how nurses experience and interpret professional accountability in their everyday working practices. Data has been collected from seven semi-structured interviews with qualified nurses. A preliminary analysis of the interviews has enabled essential concepts and meanings to be arranged into headings, patterns and structures, a technique underpinned by the work of van Manen (1984). The utilisation of an interpretive approach has started to illustrate how historical, cultural, political and social constructs have influenced and effected nurses understanding, actions and meanings related to accountability in practice. This presentation will give accounts of the lifeworld of the nurses, drawing upon their understandings and experiences of working in the NHS. As the conference is focused on changing lives, the implications of the findings for the positive development of patient care through education and practice will be considered. Here. Me. Now.: The goals and aspirations of young people living in communities labelled as gang affected. Charlene Crossley Historically, the transition to adulthood for young people has been marked by ‘unpredictability, backward steps and false starts’ (McDonald & Shildrick 2005). In today’s society, the transitions of young people have become less linear and are following a number of differing trajectories. My thesis looks at the goals and aspirations of young people living in communities labelled as gang affected or marginalised. In outlining their aspirations, the research will explore potential barriers these young people experience in ‘succeeding’ to fulfil their transition journey. A particular exploration of neighbourhood, ethnicity and gender seeks to contextualise the transitions discourse in offering potential explanations for why individuals are following a certain pathway. Participatory research methods (PAR) are largely neglected, particularly within the field of Criminology. Traditional transition literature utilises a mixture of qualitative and quantitative methodologies. Through the introduction of PAR methods, this research involves young people as the makers of the research and situating them as experts of their own lives. The research reported began in August 2015 and is ongoing in two youth centres in the Moss Side and Wythenshawe areas of Manchester. To date, 24 young people have participated in a variety of participatory methods namely an online blog, a geographical mapping exercise and the writing of a letter to their future selves.
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