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Modelling of initial pH

Modelling of initial pH influence on textile dye removal from water using electrocoagulation method – experimental and statistical approach Khalid Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Al Khaddar 1 , Montse Ortoneda Pedrola, Anmar Dulaimi, Hassnen Jafer 1 , Hayder Shanbara. A wide broad of previously published works demonstrated that the performance of the electrocoagulation (EC) method is highly influenced by the initial pH of the solution because it influences the chemistry of solution, surface charges and speciation of the produced coagulants. The present project therefore, has been devoted to model the influence of this key parameter on textile dye removal from water. Initially, the influence of initial pH on reactive black 5 dye (RB5) removal was investigated by electrolysing water samples having 25 mg/L of RB5 at different initial pHs (4 to 8). These samples were electrolysed for 50 min at a constant flow rate of 1 L/h, current density of 2 mA/cm 2 , inter-electrodes distance of 4 mm, and water conductivity of 0.32 mS/cm. The obtained results indicated that the performance of the EC unit, in terms of RB5 removal, is highly influenced by the initial pH of water being treated. It has been found that the acidic environment is favourite for RB5 removal, where it was noticed that the RB5 removal efficiency decreased from 99.6% to 87.1% as the initial pH increased from 4 to 8, respectively. Statistically, it has been found that the influence of the initial pH on the performance of the EC unit, in terms of RB5 removal, could be modelled with R 2 of 0.781, which means that the developed model can explain 78.1% of the relationship between the variation in RB5 removal and the change of the initial pH of water. Application of Data Mining Techniques to Predict the Removal Efficiency of Chemical Oxygen Demand in Wastewater Treatment Umar Iliyasu, R.H.K Ak-Iswai and M Scholz COD is one of the water quality performance indicators that when measure determines and monitor the clarity of waste water sample from influent to effluent of vertical-flow constructed wetland treating domestic wastewater from treatment plant. It measures the amount of organic matter contained in a wastewater sample. This work, Weka modelling software was employed and used to develop model for the estimation, evaluation and prediction of the wastewater effluent’s organic matter (COD) removal efficiency performance. Different type of variables used in this work are Suspended Solid (SS), pH, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) Dissolve Oxygen (Do), Ortho-phosphate-phosphorus (PO₄-P), Ammonia (NH4- N) and Temperature were considered to be used as inputs while COD serves as a parameter to be predicted (output). The results showed that there is significant improvement in organic matter (pollutants) removal efficiency (p

Educational barriers of students with sensory impairment and their coping strategies in Tanzanian higher education institutions Sarah E. Kisanga This study explored educational barriers encountered by students with Sensory Impairment (SI) and their coping strategies throughout their studies. Three objectives guided the study; it investigated academic, and social barriers encountered by students with SI throughout their studies. Lastly it explored their coping strategies. The study was conducted in Tanzanian Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) and guided by Cognitive motivational relational theory of coping by Lazarus (1991). The study employed a case study design under social constructivist paradigm to collect data from twenty-seven students with SI selected purposively from two HEIs. Semi-structured interview, open-ended questionnaire and Focus group discussions were used in data collection. Thematic analysis was used in data analysis. Findings revealed scarcity of learning and teaching resources and teachers/lecturers’ exclusionary practices as major academic barriers to both students with visual and hearing impairment and communication barrier as a major academic barrier to students with hearing impairment. The study further revealed some attitudinal barriers; society negative attitudes, social isolation and difficulty to make and keep friendship. Students with SI used both problem-focused and emotional-focused coping strategies. The government should review its budget in education sector to consider students with special education needs. Moreover, there should be a compulsory training on inclusive teaching strategies to at least one teacher in each inclusive school in the country. Finally, there should be a transformation of school cultures, teachers’ pedagogy and society negative attitudes towards individuals with disabilities. Neighbourhood trajectories: a longitudinal study of criminality Sam Langton Aims: The aim of this research project is to investigate the criminality of neighbourhoods over time. Chronological sequences of increasing, decreasing or stable periods of criminal activity characterise what we call the ‘criminal career’ of neighbourhoods. By identifying patterns in these trajectories using data on offences as well as offenders, and understanding what causes neighbourhoods to follow a particular path, one can inform both the academic field and policing practices. Data: This project will utilise crime data from the West Midlands Police Force between the years 2002 and 2016, which includes crime incident events as well as information on individual offenders. Methods: Exploratory quantitative methods will be used to identify patterns in the criminal trajectories of neighbourhoods. The trajectory can be defined by more than one variable, for example the number of crime incidents a year (by crime type) or the density of existing or newly active offenders in each neighbourhood. There as numerous methods available to operationalise this (e.g. latent class analysis, k-means, sequence analysis) which serve to profile neighbourhoods based on the volatility (or stability) of their criminal activity through time. Results: It is too early to present results. However, the expectation is that ‘hotspots’ of crime will be identified in terms of the number criminal offences a year, and that these hotspots will geographically cluster. Fluctuations in the density of existing offenders in a neighbourhood may well influence the number of newly active offenders, and consequently the offence rate.

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