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Creativity – how we

Creativity – how we can understand the ways it changes our lives. Kathy James-Castle “To make real change, you have to be well anchored - not only in the belief that it can be done, but also in some pretty real ways about who you are and what you can do.” Twyla Thorp Ballet dancer and choreographer New York. Across many disciplines scholars are trying to understand more about creativity and what it means for the benefit of our business, health, and education. However, the approach of seeking causal links of creativity for instrumental purposes neglects to acknowledge significant characteristics of creativity. This paper will argue that research on creativity is detached from discussion of the socio-cultural layered meaning of creativity. Furthermore, by concentrating on everyman/everyday creativity creative practitioners have not yet featured in research. This paper will discuss some of the main aspects of research into creativity; how the research has been approached, epistemology, ontological perspective, methods, and drivers for the research. Also, by giving examples it will argue that creativity is a complex social and cultural construction that metamorphoses through time, culture and perspective and has significant global/local layers. The paper will explain my project, which will consult creative practitioners in successful creative organisations to explore depth and socio-cultural context using art form based methods to research visual and verbal experience and perspectives. This paper will open up conversations about the socio-cultural contexts of creativity in organisations, and ways to research the interconnection of experience, reactions, feelings, and imaginations. Cognitive behavioural therapy for the management of Anxiety and Dyspnoea in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Maira Junkes Cunha, Abebaw M. Yohannes Introduction: Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for anxiety and dyspnoea in patients with COPD. It consists of coping strategies, specifically relaxation and breathing techniques to reduce physiological sensations, thought stopping and self-instructional training to reduce maladaptive thoughts associated with anxiety. The aim of this review was to synthetize and update about CBT intervention for the management of dyspnoea and anxiety in patients with COPD. Methods: An electronic database search of CINAHL, Medline, Pub Med, Science Direct and the Web of Science was conducted (2006 to October 2016). The following Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and free text words were used: "chronic obstructive pulmonary disease"; “COPD”; “dyspnea” OR “dyspnoea”; “anxiety”; “management” or “treatment” or “control” or “intervention” or “therapy”; “cognitive behavioral therapy” or “education” or “CBT” or “behavioural”. Two investigators evaluated articles fulfilling the inclusion criteria: diagnosis of COPD; randomized controlled trials, intervention studies; anxiety and/or dyspnoea as outcome measures. Results: We have identified 44 articles by screening and 11 articles were selected for this review. CBT is effective in decreasing dyspnoea intensity and anxiety symptom in comparison with usual care; 5-8 weeks CBT group or one-to-one interventions were effective in the treatment of anxiety and dyspnoea. Conclusion: There is no consensus about the recommended duration or intensity of CBT for the management of dyspnoea and anxiety in patients with COPD. Clinical implications: CBT should be used as a part of routine clinical care for comorbid anxiety and dyspnoea for patients with COPD.

The Key Determinants of Successful Marketing Strategies and Their Impact on the Performance of West Midlands Small to Medium Sized Social Enterprises: A Literature Review Paul Dobson Aims and Objectives: This literature review is aimed at exploring the key literatures surrounding social enterprise (SE) and strategic marketing, which underpin the researcher’s thesis. A major objective of the review will be to identify the main determinants of successful marketing strategies for social enterprises. Introduction / Context: There has been a rapid expansion of the SE sector in the UK over the last ten years. There are around 70,000 SEs in the UK, contributing £24 billion to the economy and employing nearly a million people (SEUK, 2015). These SEs undertake various social objectives, including palliative care, education, and employment skills training and therefore change lives. An effective marketing strategy has been reported as critical for SEs to be successful, or even survive . Methodology: A critical and analytical review of extant and germinal literatures was conducted using a qualitative, deskbased methodology (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2015). Findings: Strategic marketing in SEs is in embryonic state . The rapidly changing business environment creates a need and urgency for SEs to develop strategic marketing practices for them to successfully operate and therefore help change lives. Contribution to Knowledge: There remains a lack of academic papers that focus on the integration of strategic marketing. The authors research will help address this and develop a strategic marketing toolkit to enable SEs to assess and produce more successful marketing strategies, and therefore positive changes in lives. Time, passion, and chocolate: The ethical capital of Fair Trade supporters in the UK Ashraf M. Hamad This empirical study springs from the need to document the unheard voices of Fair Trade supporters in the UK to explore aspects of the ethical capital that underpins their perceptions and worldviews, and hence, their actions toward other Fair Trade (and Fairtrade) stakeholders. In so doing, this study responds to Bull’s et al. (2010) invitation to researchers to join the “debate to fully develop the concept of ethical capital” because it is a nascent concept and still under-researched (Frith, 2014). To fulfil this research inquiry, the current study follows a qualitative paradigm using in-depth semi-structured interviews with different types of Fair Trade supporters. The researcher interviewed 32 participants over a period of six months. Currently, this doctoral project finds its way to the early stages of data analysis work. The plan is to use thematic analysis following Braun and Clarke (2006) guidelines . The present study hopes to theoretically contribute to developing and extending the concept of ethical capital through employing it in a new context, i.e. the context of Fair Trade. In addition, the study wishes to present an ethical contribution through recognising and appreciating the work of Fair Trade supporters. The voice of this group of dedicated individuals, which managed to achieve a change in the nation’s shopping attitudes and behaviour (Human and Crowther, 2011, p. 89), as Bruce Crowther – the Founder of the Fairtrade Towns Movement – describes, deserve to be heard.

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