A study to explore the use of mobile technology in supporting the management of acute pain at home following bowel surgery for patient on accelerated discharge plan Razia B. Aubdool This project will explore the role played by identified mobile applications (Apps) to support the management of acute pain at home for potential participants who have had bowel surgery under an accelerated discharge programme. Kamerow (2013) found that the use of smartphone apps in health care is rapidly growing amounting to 100,000 medical apps. Participants consenting to take part in the study will be informed that these Apps are not an intervention to pain management or a substitute for pain relief but a complementary support in the pain management. The study does not aim to develop new apps but has the potential of ‘changing lives’. A qualitative research method is proposed to be used for the project as it is often identified as humanistic and descriptive in nature (Patton, 2002). Focus groups and telephone interviews will be used for data collection. Brawn and Clarke Framework (2013) will be used to analyse the thematic qualitative data. Ethical principles and protocol will be adhered to and considerations will be made to any risks associated with the research. Aim: To explore if apps can support patient to manage acute pain at home once discharged from hospital following planned bowel surgery and whether patients will actively use apps to inform their pain management following bowel surgery. Objectives: To explore the use of smart phone, tablet or IPad Applications for recording a number of variables for over a 3 months period. To evaluate the usefulness and acceptability of these Apps from Patients’ perspective. To explore the barriers and facilitators for this implementation. Congenital Hyperinsulinism; Effects of Rapamycin on Min6 Pancreatic β-Cell Line Osama S. Basalem, Karen E. Cosgrove Introduction: Congenital Hyperinsulinism (CHI) is a rare neonatal syndrome associated with continuous inappropriate insulin secretion by the pancreatic beta cells in the presence of recurring hypoglycemia. Newborn babies with CHI present with hypoglycemia and often do not responding to medical therapy. Although rapamycin has been used to successfully treat a small number of CHI patients, the mechanism of action to reduce insulin secretion is still unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of rapamycin on insulin secretion and cell proliferation in Min6 mouse insulinoma β-cell line, an in vitro model system that reflects many properties of normal human β-cells. Methods: Cells were seeded in 24-well plates at basal (2 mM) glucose concentrations and insulin secretion was stimulated using 20mM glucose and 100 µM each of ATP, UTP and ACh, with or without the presence of rapamycin.. Insulin secretion was analyzed using ELISA. Cell proliferation was assessed using BrDU incorporation and subsequent immunofluoresence, and growth curves were constructed using manual cell counts with Trypan blue to indicate cell death. The effects of different concentrations of rapamycin were assessed on cell proliferation using growth curves. Results: High concentrations of glucose, and addition of ATP, UTP and ACh all elicited robust increases in insulin secretion from Min6 cells (n= at least 4 separate experiments). Although basal insulin secretion at 2 mM glucose was not affected, 200 nM rapamycin significantly inhibited glucose- and ATP/UTP/ACh-stimulated insulin secretion back to basal levels (n=4 separate experiments). Pre-incubation of Min6 cells in rapamycin prior to insulin secretion experiments resulted in raised basal insulin secretion and poor glucose-induced insulin secretion responses although these experiments need to be repeated (n=1). Rapamycin was shown to reduce cell proliferation at every concentration used over a period of 4 days with significant reduction of cell numbers following 4 days of treatment (n=3). Conclusion: Rapamycin inhibits insulin secretion and cell growth in Min6 cells. Since rapamycin inhibits both glucose- and ATP/UTP/ACh- induced insulin secretion, it seems likely that the mechanism of action on insulin secretion involves signaling downstream of K ATP channel inhibition, membrane depolarization and intracellular Ca 2+ increases via voltagegated Ca 2+ channels or release from intracellular stores. Further experiments are needed to assess the precise mechanisms of secretion in greater detail.
Development of a novel wound dressing coated with drug-loaded mesenchymal stem cells to promote wound healing in diabetics Albandari Bin Ammar Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterised by increased blood glucose concentrations resulting from a lack or partial deficiency of insulin, or insulin resistance . The prolonged hyperglycaemia of diabetes mellitus is widely recognised as the causal link between diabetes and diabetic complications . Moreover, hyperglycaemia induces protein glycation and the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). The accumulation of AGEs in the body leads to structural and functional modifications of tissue proteins. Impaired wound healing is associated with hyperglycaemia in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus. Dicarbonyl compounds such as methylglyoxal are formed at an increased rate under hyperglycaemic conditions in diabetes. Thus, inhibition of AGE formation may have a role in the prevention of diabetic complications. The present study is conducted to evaluate the antiglycation activities of S-allyl cysteine (SAC) mixture with N- acetylcysteine (NAC) and compound A alone (Chemically synthesised small molecule inhibitor- Mimic of SAC/NAC) were identified as inhibiting the formation of MG-derived AGEs.Model proteins such as lysozyme and BSA were glycated using sugars (such as MG) as glycating agents both in the presence and absence of inhibiter compounds. The extent of glycation in the presence and absence of different AGExt and compound A were assessed by different methods including sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and Western blotting. It has been established that SAC, NAC and compound A, are inhibitors of protein glycation. Their antiglycation, and carbonyl scavenging properties may offer greater therapeutic potential compared to other AGE inhibitors since AGEs can be formed by multiple pathways involving both oxidative and non-oxidative processes. Measuring the Degree of Time Varying Market Efficiency in Saudi Stock Market Yazeed Bin Ateeq The aim of this paper is to investigate how past information about historical share price affects current and future stock prices by testing the weak-form efficiency hypothesis in one of the largest stock market exchange, in the Middle East and North Africa i.e. the Saudi Stock Market Exchange. More particular, the original definition of market efficiency is provided by Fama (1970, p. 383) in his seminal paper: “A market in which prices always “fully reflect” available information is called “efficient.” However, a number of researchers, including (Butler and Malaikah, 1992, Khababa, 1998, Elango and Hussein, 2008, Onour, 2009, Al Ashikh, 2012) empirically proved the existence of market inefficiency in the Saudi stock market. They commented that since stock movements are not random, and equity returns are predictable, more statistical evidence is required in order to verify the hypotheses and go far by determining the level of the efficiency and find out the event that affects the level of the efficiency. Thus, this study will attempt to determine the level of the Saudi stock market efficiency. For analysis the data will be based on the comparison of data from Saudi stock market and using Non-overlapping Subsamples by addressing the Effect of Major Events on Weak-form Market Efficiency. This can be done by using Time series data as the basis of economic forecasting, (ARIMA) model. Moreover, The ARIMA model produces clear data based on analysis of stochastic or probabilistic elements of an economic time series, which makes this unique, as it does not rely on constructing a simultaneous-equation model or a single-equation model.