Microanalysis of a New Cementitious Material to Use As a Filler in a Cold Dense Graded Binder Course Mixture Anmar Dulaimi, Hassan Al Nageim, Khalid Hashim a , Felicite Ruddock and Linda Seton Cold bituminous emulsion mixtures (CBEMs) are gaining attention and can be considered as a new type of material suitable for environmental protection and energy saving (Gómez-Meijide et al., 2015). The motivation for finding alternatives to hot mix asphalt (HMA) is to decrease the costs of energy and emissions of carbon related with the manufacture of HMA (Ellis et al., 2004; Al-Busaltan et al., 2012; Al-Hdabi et al., 2013). A laboratory study was performed to develop a new cementitious material totally from waste materials to use as a cement replacement in a novel fast-curing cold asphalt concrete bituminous emulsion for binder course (CACB). The commercial mineral filler was replaced by a new binary blended cement filler (BBCF) system that contains a high calcium fly ash (HCFA) and aluminosilicate rich waste material (HASW). Mechanical properties have been characterised in terms of the indirect tensile stiffness modulus test (ITSM) while the scanning electronic microscopy technique was adopted for the microanalyses of the hydration compositions in the new BBCF system. SEM provides evidence of the existence of hydrate product which is responsible for the ITSM development in the BBCF treated mixture. Therefore, this paper recommends a new cementitious filler material consisting of a mixture of HCFA and HASW. Decreasing waste disposal and saving raw materials contribute to sustainable development and have social, environmental and economic benefits. Differential impact of anabolic and catabolic stimuli on differentiation of young and old murine and human myoblasts Aisha Elbouzidi, Hans Degens, Claire Stewart Although it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms underpinning muscle wasting with ageing, it is ultimately the failure of cell function that leads to all ageing phenomena. Part of the cause of cellular dysfunction in old age is thought to be chronic, low grade, systemic inflammation in the face of reduced anabolic drives. Skeletal muscle and its resident stem cells provide good models of cellular and tissue failure with age. Easy access to muscle derived stem cells provides a tool with which to assess local vs. environmental triggers of age related cellular dysfunction. The aim of this study was to develop relevant models of age-related muscle wasting. The hypothesis was that older muscle cells would be more prone to catabolic and less prone to anabolic adaptation vs. younger muscle cells. Objectives were to compare and contrast younger and older skeletal muscle cell adaptation to anabolic (IGF-I) and catabolic (IL-6 and TNF-α) stimuli. In the murine model and in line with expectations, IGF-I (100 ng/ml) resulted in improved fusion in younger, but reduced fusion in older myoblasts. By contrast and unexpectedly, in human myoblasts the opposite occurred, where IGF-I (100 ng/ml) resulted in reduced fusion in younger, but increased fusion in older myoblasts. Where improved fusion was evident (regardless of model or age) with IGF-I administration, this was associated with enhanced basal fusion potential, which should therefore be considered when choosing models of study. It is currently not known what drives altered basal fusion capability and the subsequent enhanced response to IGF-I. Therefore, the two models together provide an opportunity to further investigate this finding. When assessing the impact of catabolic cytokines on myoblast fusion, both models displayed increased negative adaptation in older vs. younger myoblasts. However, and interestingly, older murine myoblasts were more responsive to TNF and older human myoblasts to IL-6 administration. The impaired differentiation in response to the cytokines may underlie the muscle wasting evident in older age and again, provides a good model of study. In conclusion, evidence is provided here of the development of muscle models for investigating muscle ageing in vitro. Early data suggest that care should be taken when choosing the model and this should be driven by the final question being addressed e.g. the model for studying hypertrophy, may not be the best model for studying atrophy.
Effect of Sex Steroid Hormones (Estrogen) on Host-Pathogen Interactions in an in vitro Model of Age-Related Impaired Healing. Mohamed El Mohtadi, Kathryn Whitehead, Jason Ashworth Age-related impaired healing and chronic wounds are characterised by excessive inflammation causing morbidity and mortality in elderly populations, which costs the health services over $9 billion per annum. Chronic wounds are wounds that do not heal through an orderly and timely reparative process, and are characterised by a prolonged inflammatory phase. They are often colonized with a variety of bacterial species particularly nosocomial pathogens, such as, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. There is a clear evidence that elderly people are more susceptible to chronic wounds than young people, and this is related to the aberrant alterations in the inflammatory responses during aging. It has been shown that a low-grade inflammatory process in elderly people may be due predominantly to age-related changes in circulating and peripheral levels of steroid hormones. In particular, estrogen has been shown to be a major regulator of the aging processes (including inflammation), via the estrogen receptor (ER) expressed on the inflammatory cells such as monocytes and macrophages. It is therefore important to understand the factors affecting the changes in the inflammatory response in the elderly in order to prevent or reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with chronic wounds. The aim of this project was to determine the effects of aging (oestrogen deprivation) on the phagocytosis of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria using an in vitro model of inflammation (U937 macrophage-like cells) and infection (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Different concentrations of estrogen (1x10 -9 M, 1x10 -8 M and 1x10 -7 M) were used as model of aged and young patients. The results showed that high concentrations of estrogen (1x10 -8 M and 1x10 -7 M) significantly increased the amount of phagocytosis, with the number of recovered MRSA and P. aeruginosa colony forming units decreasing compared to the untreated control. In conclusion, these results may be relevant to understanding the age-related impaired healing process in chronic wounds. Personality Trait Deception in the Workplace: The Implications on same-level employee relationship in Nigerian organisations Henry Elochukwu My research is on personality trait deception in the Nigerian working environments. The research is at the initial stage of theoretical evolution, and is expected to change as more insight is acquired. This is only the first year of my PhD programme, so I would like to focus on the theory and methodology part of my research. I’ll be investigating same-level employee engagement, and will be using Myers-Briggs Type Indicator theory to support my data. Other theoretical model could involve; Paul Ekman’s Clues to deceit. I will also be considering national culture as an important factor on the way things are done in the country. This particular field of research aims to understand human behavioral and cognitive disposition, hence an investigative qualitative research design will be employed for this study. By subject nature of personality types, this research first explores a quantitative study on the respondents, and then it will be supported with a qualitative research design using impartial observation strategy to ascertain deceptive behaviours in the workplace. The respondents for this study would be groups of employees from different organizations. Data will be gathered from corporate organizations in Nigeria. Participants are same-level employees from different companies, which will be obtained through simple random sampling. Although some ethical issues have presented itself with the use of these research methods, I plan to implement a data collection strategy which lets me address these issues. Especially in the qualitative research design.
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