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Parents, Teachers and

Parents, Teachers and Attitudes to School Food in Saudi Arabia Hanadi Elyas Providing school meals for children can be a challenging issue in terms of balancing factors such as finance, nutrition and sustainability and few countries have managed to implement this system successfully. Although the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) previously had a full school meals programme, this was withdrawn. Instead, the government now allows all elementary schools in the state and private sector to sell snacks to school children. Like many Western countries, KSA is now facing a number of nutrition-related health challenges including growing rates of diabetes, obesity and tooth decay and there is increasing evidence that a change to the school food system may be one way of addressing these problems. This paper forms part of doctoral research exploring the need for a new approach to school food in KSA. It presents the initial results of analysis of questionnaires and focus groups intended to gather the perceptions of and attitudes towards food at school by Saudi parents and elementary school teachers and will be used to inform policy recommendations relating to a healthier and more sustainable system of school food provision Synthesis of a 6,6 nitrone intermediate in synthetic studies towards the histrionicotoxin alkaloids Michael Foley Histrionicotoxin (HTX) 1 is part of a group of alkaloids found in certain frog species throughout South America. HTX was originally isolated from the skin of the frog species Denbrobates histrionicus, they can also act as non-competitive inhibitors of neuromuscular and central neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These neurophysiological properties have led to many synthetic studies having been undertaken for the aim of treating different neurophysiological conditions. N H HO Histrionicotoxin 1 FIGURE 1 Br Br previously devised by us towards pinnaic acid/halichlorine. N O HO 2 An approach has been devised to synthesise the core HTX compound using a spirocyclic nitrone intermediate 6. Nitrone compounds are known to have an extensive reactivity profile, being able to undergo dipolar cycloaddition with a number of electron rich and electron poor dipolaraphiles and nucleophilic additions with Grignard reagents. Herein we reveal our synthetic studies towards nitrone 2 from 1,5-dibromopentane, which is based on a similar approach

Changing Lives: The Benefits and Challenges of Electronic Records Access for Patients Jacqui Gladwin Patients can now access their primary care records online and there is evidence, which suggests potential benefits of this in empowering them to be more proactive in managing their health needs potentially improving health outcomes (Pagliari et al 2012). The mixed methods exploratory study (Creswell & Plano Clark 2011) uses semi-structured interviews to explore the experience of patients of accessing records or those who have made a deliberate decision not to access them. The quantitative part of the study using validated questionnaires will explore the process of access and its usability followed up by more interviews with staff involved in the management of access within a local GP practice. This study is very much work in progress. Themes identified from initial interviews with patients (n = 9) so far are: ease of use, difference in reasons for access/ non access fear of losing contact with GPs, staff lack of knowledge regarding the service, patients choice in the services they access, difficulty with reading and comprehension of information, clinicians lack of care with recording information, lack of awareness of health care data systems, desire to be informed and in charge of their own health decisions Reflections so far relate to the lack of awareness of integrated systems in health care amongst patients. The need for individuals to understand the importance of personal investment in managing their own health care needs and the differences in patients perceptions of need and roles of clinicians in managing their health. A Tangled Web: The Effects of Cathinone-Derived New Psychoactive Substances on Web Building and Prey Capture in the European Garden Spider Leah Amy Greenhalgh, Scott Pedley, Oliver Sutcliffe, Robyn Grant Addiction is a crippling condition, one that the booming New Psychoactive Substance (NPS) market willingly exploits. Usually, an NPS derivative of a drug will be several-fold stronger than the original substance due to the conscious development of a structure to maximise its potency. This becomes a serious issue when individuals take these new compounds in similar quantities as they would older-more familiar-drugs, increasing the chance of adverse side effects. A key failing of current legislation introduced by many governments is the banning of certain structures but not classes of controlled substances: as soon as one formula becomes illegal, another soon takes its place. Unfortunately, the development of NPS’ is quicker than the rate at which they can be analysed; as such, a fast and simple indicator of toxicity in humans could be an ideal tool. My master’s project focuses on the chemical synthesis and subsequent testing of novel trifluorinated metabolites of the NPS mephedrone on arachnids. My primary aim will be to statistically evaluate the effects of the drugs on survival by assessing web-spinning and hunting ability. In this way, we hope to judge if a metabolite is biologically active and if so, whether the effects are more or less severe than the parent drug. This, in turn, will give us an idea of how the novel compounds-for which there are no human metabolic data sets-could adversely affect members of the public if they became available illicitly, whilst avoiding the need for human test subjects.

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