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Cytotoxic diterpenes

Cytotoxic diterpenes from the fruits of Zanthoxyllum leprieurii (Rutaceae) Stephanie T. Guetchueng, Lutfun Nahar, Kenneth Ritchie, Jean D. Wansi, Andrew Evans, Satya D. Sarker Cancer figures about the leading causes of mortality worldwide with about 14 million cases registered every year. The risk of cancer can be lowered by 40% by undertaking a healthy diet and consumption of fruits and vegetables could prevent more than 20% of cases. The fruits of Zanthoxylum leprieurii (Rutaceae) are traditionally used in Africa and particularly in Cameroon as spice and in the treatment of sickle cell anemia as well. To bring scientific evidence to their use in traditional medicine, phytochemical study and in vitro anticancer assay were carried out on the fruits of Z. leprieurii. Various chromatographic methods were used to isolate the pure compounds from the hexane extract. Their structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and by comparison with available literature data. MTT assay was used for the cytotoxic studies of hexane extract and some pure compounds. Five kaurane diterpenes, i.e., Ent-kaurenoic acid (1), xylopic acid (2), Ent-kauran-16β-ol (3), Ent-16β-hydroxykauran-19-al (4) and Ent-16β-hydroxykauran-19-oic acid (5) along with a mixture of β-sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol were isolated and identified from the fruits of Z. leprieurii. Among these compounds, ent-kaurenoic acid exhibited a good antiproliferative activity on PC-3 cells line killing nearly 92% of cancer cells at the concentration of 33 µM. This is the first report of kaurane diterpenes from the genus Zanthoxylum. This study shows that new interesting anticancer molecules can be isolated from plants thus changing the lives of thousands of people with cancer. Ethical dilemmas: examining the role professional YouTubers play in young people’s health behaviour and identity in the UK. Jane Harris, Lorna Porcellato, Amanda Atkinson, Michael Mink Social media is an important source of health advice for young people; sharing experience of health related behaviours and services. The changing way in which young people engage with social media has allowed the rise of the YouTube celebrity. There are 147 individuals in the UK with >1 million subscribers, the majority of this audience are aged 13-17 years and the content they produce is largely unregulated. There is little research on the health information contained within these videos or to evaluate the influence that this information has on young people’s health behaviours. Aim: To examine the role that YouTubers play in influencing young people’s health behaviour and identity in the UK. This mixed methods PhD study combines three stages; online questionnaire with young people, a netnographic study of YouTube and follow up focus groups with young people, and semi-structured interviews with professional YouTubers. The findings will be triangulated to explore YouTubers’ role in the communication of health messages and their influence on health behaviours. This PhD is in the early stages. This poster will highlight three of the ethical dilemmas considered in its design. How do we seek parental consent when recruiting young people directly from internet fan communities? Should we disclose that we are using publically available YouTube videos in research? Should we use verbatim quotes from these sources? Ethical decision making in online research is complex and not always given sufficient attention. The Association of Internet Research (AoIR; 2012) highlight the researcher’s obligation to protect communities from harm but advocate practical judgements made attentive to the research context. This poster aims to present some potential solutions to ethical dilemmas.

Investigating pathogenic oral microbial species metabolites as toxins and biomarkers in chronic kidney disease Niall Anthony Hickey This provisional research aims at identifying and demonstrating specific oral microorganisms secrete metabolites, which have the potential of being damaging to the kidneys. The chosen microorganisms are representative of the commensal oral microflora as well as pathogenic bacteria. They were grown on a variety of different agar and broth compositions along with differing nutrient conditions mimicking the oral microenvironment, in order to ascertain the optimum growth conditions. The conditioned supernatants were collected and analysed for secondary metabolite production utilising liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy and compounds were identified which are potentially nephrotoxic. The findings indicate that certain metabolites, which are highly upregulated in different growth mediums compared to controls. These metabolites have been compared between different growth mediums to get an insight into the metabolome of implicated oral bacteria. Further analysis of some of these compounds suggests that some have been reported to be cytotoxic and/or inflammatory mediating which may implicate a role in chronic kidney disease. This research has implications for global health as Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and other non-communicable diseases are increasingly prevalent in our ageing society. Investigating the potential role of oral bacteria in CKD could lead to advances in the prevention and management of CKD. Future research will look at investigating their effects of the metabolites on kidney cell lines to see if they can induce renal damage through fibrosis and inflammation. Physico-chemical activation of a high calcium fly ash used as a cement replacement in the stabilisation of soft soils Hassnen M Jafer, W Atherton, F Ruddock, E Loffill, and Khalid Hashim Waste materials, sometimes called by-product materials have been increasingly used as replacement materials to reduce the usage of cement in different construction projects . In the field of soil stabilisation, waste materials such as pulverised fuel ash (PFA), biomass fly ash (BFA), sewage sludge ash (SSA), etc.; have been used since the 1960s. This paper represents the results of experimental work for the optimisation of free Portland Cement binary blended using two types of waste material fly ashes for use in soft soil stabilisation. The pozzolanic reactivity of calcium rich fly ash (FA1) was explored initially by using grinding and then by free cement blending with high alkaline waste fly ash (FA2) used as chemical activator. This blended material was used in different mixing proportions to improve the physical and geotechnical properties of a soft soil such as Atterberg limits and unconfined compressive strength (UCS). The index of plasticity was decreased significantly by using FA1 alone and similarly with the binary blend of FA1 and FA2. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) test was carried out on specimens of stabilised soil subjected to different periods of curing (3, 7, 14, and 28 days). However, a microstructural investigation was conducted on the most remarkable mixture by performing the scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) test through the same aforementioned intervals of curing. The alkaline material (FA2) was found to be effective with respect to activated FA1 where it led to a clear increase in the UCS of the stabilised soil.

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