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Assessment of synthetic

Assessment of synthetic chalcones as cancer chemopreventive agents Hiba Jasim, Satya Sarker, Sharon Moore, Kenneth Ritchie Chemoprevention is an utilisation of natural or synthetic products to eliminate or minimize the development of cancer. Many cancers are thought to occur due to processes such as oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation by damaging DNA. Chemopreventive compounds may prevent such damage from occurring to DNA. Additionally, chalcones are a family of flavonoid based compounds which have been reported to act as cancer chemopreventive compounds. In this study we investigated the ability of synthetic chalcones to act as chemopreventive agents. The aim was to assess the ability of the synthetic chalcones to switch on the transcription factor Nrf2 thus inducing many cell defence genes. This was achieved using the AREc32 reporter cell line that contains the luciferase gene linked to the antioxidant response element (ARE) portion of DNA to which the Nrf2 transcription factor binds. Methodology: The luciferase reporter ARE32 cell line was exposed to varying concentrations of synthetic chalcones to determine a suitable non-toxic concentration to use (MTT assay). The AREc32 cells were then exposed to this non-toxic concentration of chalcones for 24 hours after which the amount of luciferase activity (Nrf2 activity) was quantified. Results: The MTT assay results showed that 11 chalcones were non-toxic at 1000nM, Meanwhile, four chalcones were toxic at 1000nm, two chalcones were toxic at 500nM and three were toxic at 100nM, Conclusion: Synthetic chalcones were tested for their cytotoxicity through ARE32 cell line using MTT assay. The toxicity of compounds was depended on the presence, number and position of alkoxy and/or benzodioxole groups. Planning and Designing Public Open Spaces as a strategy for Disaster Resilience R.R.J Chathuranganee Jayakody, D Amarathunga, R Haigh The current focus of planning and designing Public Open Spaces has been mostly given on creating sustainable cities. However, the negative implications of rapid urbanization increase the risk of disasters in cities putting more pressure on the path to achieve sustainable city concept. Therefore, the strategies to create sustainable cities should encompass the improvements of disaster resilience. Further, the literature findings provide evidences of potential use of public open spaces as an agent of recovery in an event of disaster, to provide essential life support, as a primary place to rescue and for shelters and potential for adaptive response. Yet, it is little known in the field, ‘How to plan and design public open spaces as a strategy for disaster resilience within the sustainable city concept’. Accordingly, the aim of this research is to develop a framework to plan and design public open spaces to increase the ability of the city dwellers to resist, absorb, accommodate and recover from the effects of a natural hazard. The answer to the research question will be found through a deep investigation on potential uses of public open spaces for disaster resilience and methods and approaches that can be used to enhance the identified potentials through the use of experts’ knowledge and community knowledge. The findings will contribute to change the lives of the city dwellers as it indicates how to use the public open spaces in day today life and also in an event of emergency or recovery and mitigation

Communication Infrastructure for Peer-to-Peer Energy Trading Olamide Jogunola, Bamidele Adebisi The shared economy is booming with Airbnb and Uber companies continuing to disrupt the hotel and taxi sectors. Could electricity grid be next to go the way of a sharing economy? Electricity grid has been a centralized infrastructure, which suffers long distance distribution to the consumer. This results in greenhouse effect (GHE) and a single point of failure/blackout in the advent of disruption with the main grid. However, with distributed energy resources in form of micro-grid (MG), consumers could become prosumers (produce and consume energy), and thus actively participating in the shared economy by trading/sharing energy. This phenomenon will significantly contribute to revolutionizing our day-to-day life by eliminating total blackout, GHE and hence consumers can satisfy their energy demand, reduce energy cost and make profit. These benefits are achievable with a functional ICT. Thus, we are investigating the impact of communication infrastructure in energy trading among prosumers with a particular focus on how prosumers can achieve seamless communication whilst trading energy in a peer-to-peer (P2P) fashion without a centralized infrastructure. Thus far, initial findings indicate that latency, throughput, reliability and security are the most important issues to consider in designing a communication infrastructure for MG. Further, P2P architecture used in Bit torrent, Gnutella, etc. could be used for P2P trading in MG if attention is given to their scalability and robustness issues. We hope to use these findings to develop a novel communication architecture, which will lead to the development of P2P-ETS to allow real-time prosumer energy trading. Could mouthguard design have an effect on usage within sport? R Karaganeva, D Tomlinson, A Burden, S Pinner, R Taylor, K Winwood, Wearing a mouthguard (MG) during sport significantly reduces the risk of dental injuries by up to 50% (Dhillon et al., 2014); therefore, it is important to increase awareness of MG use. Customised MGs have shown better functionality than cheaper ‘over-the-counter’ types. MGs are not compulsory in all contact sports and often athletes are only recommended to use the device. Frequently, there is a refusal to wear MGs due to comfort, breathing, or speech impedance issues. Comfort could be related to retention, thus further research is required to examine a MG parameter such as retention that could be associated with improving comfort and increasing their usage. The present study examined novel techniques to identify differences within retention across various customised MG designs, which varied in design and thickness. Statistical differences between MG designs in terms of their ability to withstand displacement forces were found (p < .005). Thinner MGs (

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