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You say tomato , I say

You say tomato , I say tomato ? Expert and non-expert perceptions of environmental hazards in the UK Maria Loroño-Leturiondo Climate change intensified hazards, which are affecting the lives of many people across the UK, require exploring renewed ways of protecting at-risk communities (World Economic Forum 2016). Scientists and society have to explore new pathways to work together in advancing knowledge in relation to environmental hazards, combining scientific and experiential knowledge (Whatmore and Landström 2011, Höppner et al. 2010). Effective two-way communication of environmental hazards is, however, a challenge. Besides considering factors such as the purpose of communication, or the characteristics of the different formats; effective communication has to carefully acknowledge the personal framework of the individuals involved. Existing knowledge, experiences, beliefs, and needs are critical determinants of the way they perceive and relate to these hazards, and in turn, of the communication process in which they are involved (Longnecker 2016 and Gibson et al. 2016). Our study builds on the need to explore environmental hazard perception. Here we present early findings of a survey analysing how experts and non-experts in the UK perceive environmental hazards. With this study we aim to contribute to establishing two-way forms of communication that work to change and improve the lives of affected communities. Development of a novel deployment strategy for in-situ elemental studies: Arsenic mobilisation as a case study B.M.Macaulay, B.E. van Dongen, J.R. Lloyd, D.A. Polya Redox-driven cycling of elements (such as arsenic, selenium and uranium) at the subsurface is often linked to massive geogenic toxicity in groundwater and soils at anoxic depths. In order to understand the biogeochemistry of these elements, researchers have relied on lab-based microcosm experiments which potentially disregard the dynamic nature of ecology. Therefore, there is the need to develop a deployment strategy for field-based studies. This study focuses on developing a novel technique for in-situ arsenic mobilisation studies. The strategy involves five steps: (1) Preparing sediment mineral proxy associated with the element (2) coating the element onto the surface of the solid mineral matrix (3) coating an electron donor onto the matrix (4) fabricating a novel in-situ incubation vessel (5) designing the experimental set-up. For arsenic mobilisation, iron (III) oxide mineral was coated onto the surface of pumice stones (silicabase). The Fe-coated pumice stone was in turn coated with sodium arsenate and carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) which served as the electron donor. To deploy these treated samples in-situ, porous incubation vessels made from acrylic plastic were fabricated and a conceptual experimental set-up was designed. There is however, the need to test the efficiency of this deployment strategy in the field to complete its recommendation for in-situ elemental studies.

Altered Islet Architecture in Congenital Hyperinsulinism in Infancy Walaa Mal, Maria Salomon-Estebanez, Raja Padidela, Mars S. Skae, Ross Craigie, Karen E.Cosgrove, Indi Banerjee, Mark J.Dunne Background: Congenital hyperinsulinism of infancy (CHI) is the most common cause of severe hypoglycaemia in children. CHI arises from mutations in ion channel genes (ABCC8/KCNJ11), which lead to inappropriate insulin secretion. CHI is also associated with increased cell proliferation and altered islet cell development. Aims and Objectives: Our aims were; [1] to investigate the structure/composition of the islet capsule in CHI and [2] to relate this to the organisation of islet cells. Methods: Pancreas tissues were obtained from CHI patients following surgery and from autopsy specimens of agematched control infants. Islet capsule and intra-islet blood vessel structures were demonstrated after staining diffuse CHI tissues and control pancreata with Picrosirius Red (PSR). Collagen distribution was quantified using a digital macro analysis after placing the PSR stained slide under polarising microscopy. Then, immunostaining was performed on diffuse CHI, focal CHI, atypical CHI and controls to examine the expression pattern of collagen (IV) α1 chain (COL4A1) in islet basement membrane (BM) and the optical density was measured. Results: PSR staining showed that control islets are surrounded by defined layer of BM. In diffuse CHI (n=7, 2-13 months), 75% of islets were incompletely encapsulated compared to only 22% in control islets (n=4, age 7 weeks-10 months). When collagen content was quantified, diffuse CHI was significantly lower (P≤0.0001) than control islets and this was found to be associated with a marked decrease in the expression of COL4A1 in diffuse CHI (n=4, 2-5 months). Three dimensional imaging using confocal microscopy of CHI-D (n=2, 5 months) islets revealed that α -cells were disorganised from the islet capsule and capillaries when compared to controls. Summary/Conclusion: Diffuse CHI is associated with disturbances in islet architecture and lower collagen content compared to age-matched controls. The low level of COL4A1 expression supports the possible involvement of the islet matrix in the pathogenesis of diffuse CHI. Altered organization of α-cells within the microvasculature in diffuse CHI islets may linked to loss of hypoglycaemia- driven counter-regulatory responses by α-cells. The Bristol Pound: a tool for eco-localisation? Adam Marshall Since the mid-2000s a number of communities have been experimenting with convertible local currency schemes as a means to fight/reverse the perceived negative changes wrought by economic globalisation. While it has been argued that convertible local currencies have the potential to positively change communities by localising supply chains and increasing local productive capacity (eco-localisation), little research has been done on the topic. Launched in 2012, the Bristol Pound is not the first convertible local currency to circulate regionally, to be administered by a credit union, or to be supported by a local council. However, it is the first convertible local currency to possess all three attributes simultaneously. For these reasons Ryan-Collins (2012) has heralded the Bristol Pound as marking a “new era for local money”, arguing that these attributes could enable it to really drive eco-localisation. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with businesses, Bristol Pound stakeholders and economists in order to explore the Bristol Pound’s impact on eco-localisation and, more generally, the utility of local currencies as a tool for driving eco-localisation. Following a thematic analysis the results suggest that the Bristol Pound has had a negligible impact on eco-localisation. Many of the barriers to ecolocalisation were found to be political rather than economic in nature. As such, convertible local currencies are ineffective tools for overcoming those barriers. Therefore, this study suggests that that those seeking to drive eco-localisation and change their communities for the better should explore political options to achieve their goals.

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