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APPENDIX 1: CHINESE INITIALS AND FINALS The pronunciation and spelling of Chinese characters are generally given in terms of initials (i.e. consonants) and finals (possible combinations of vowels and consonants). The following two tables describe the pronunciation of each Chinese initial and final in pinyin and how they are approximated in this series using the five European languages. Table 1: Pronunciation of initials Pinyin Sound description European equivalent b c ch Not aspirated, between b and p. Sounds like t followed by s (cats) or German z (Zeitung). Pronounced strongly aspirated. Strongly aspirated, as English or Spanish ch (chin, chofer) or Italian ce (cenare). b English ts German z English ch, tsh Spanish ch Italian ce d t not aspirated, between d and t. f As English f. d f g h j k not aspirated, between g and k. Like Scottish ch (loch), English or German h (Hund), French or German r (roue, raus) and Spanish j (jefe). Similar to the English pronunciation of the letter G, not aspirated. Hard g English h French r Spanish j German h, r English: Soft j, g. Thee for pinyin starting with ji. French dj. French or German du and dü for pinyin starting with ju. Italian soft g k Strongly aspirated k. Hard c, k, qu l As English l. l m As English m. m 一 百 〇 五 105

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