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CHINESE BLOCKBUSTER Table 1: Pronunciation of initials Pinyin Sound description European equivalent n As English n. n p Strongly aspirated p. p q r Similar to an aspirated pinyin j. Sounds like English ch (cheek), Italian c (cin cin), Spanish ch (bachiller) and French Canadian t when followed by u (tulipe). Between English r and French j (bonjour). English ch French t for pinyin starting with qu Italian ci Spanish ch English r French j s As English s (sun). s and soft French c sh As English s, ch and sh (sure, chandelier, shoe) or French ch (chêne). English s, sh French ch German sch t Strongly aspirated t. t w As English w (water). English w x y z zh A sound between s (sea) and sh (shoe). As in yes. Pronounced like English letter e when written yi and like French u when written yu. Sounds like d followed by s (suds) or Italian z (pizza). Rather like English soft j or g (joke, genetic). English s, c, sh French s, c, ch Spanish s, c German sch and ‘special’ s English e, i, y French u, eu, hu, hi, hy (h is silent in French) English ds, dz, z Italian z English soft j, g French dj Italian g 106 一 百 〇 六

APPENDIX 1: CHINESE INITIALS AND FINALS Table 2: Pronunciation of finals Pinyin Sound description European equivalent a Like English a in father. a ai an ang ao Like English eye or aisle. As in tan, except when following an initial y-; it is then pronounced yen. As in angst. As in how or cow. English ai, ay, eye, i French ail, aille Italian ai Spanish ai, ay German ai, ei an in most languages + French anne and German ahn anc, ang, ank + French agne English ao, ar, aw, ou, ow French ao, ar Italian ao e Like e in her or u in duh. English, French or German e ei As in hay, eight or the letter a. English a, ai, ay, e, ei French é, ez Italian e Spanish e en As in open, taken. en eng As in open with an appended g. eng in most languages + English ong, onk, ung, unk and French ogne er As in army. English ar, aur i Like ee in bee or ea in tea. When it follows initials z-, c-, s-, zh-, ch-, sh- or r-, it is either not pronounced, like pinyin zi where it sounds somewhat like dzzzz, or it sounds like an English vowel followed by the letter r, like er of snatcher or ur of sure. English e, ea, ee, er, or, ur French i, y German eu 一 百 〇 七 107

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