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APPENDIX 4: HEAVENLY STEMS & EARTHLY BRANCHES In ancient China, heavenly stems and earthly branches were used to form a calendar system based on a sexagenary cycle. Nowadays, heavenly stems are mostly used in enumerations while earthly branches are used for the 12 animals of the Chinese zodiac. Heavenly stems # Char. Pinyin Definition 1 甲 jiǎ First 2 乙 yǐ Second 3 丙 bǐng Third 4 丁 dīng Fourth 5 戊 wù Fifth 6 己 jǐ Self 7 庚 gēng Age of a person 8 辛 xīn Hardship 9 壬 rén Burden 10 癸 guǐ Menstruation Earthly branches # Char. Pinyin Zodiac animal 1 子 zǐ Rat 2 丑 chǒu Ox 3 寅 yín Tiger 4 卯 maǒ Rabbit 5 辰 chén Dragon 6 巳 sì Snake 7 午 wǔ Horse 8 未 weì Sheep 9 申 shēn Monkey 10 酉 yǒu Rooster 11 戌 xū Dog 12 亥 haì Pig 一 百 二 十 三 123

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