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arXiv:1604.04722v2

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Communities with

Communities with self-loops 0 (138) 10 (191) 23 (54) 24 (38) 26 (22) 29 (81) 30 (91) 31 (48) 32 (240) 33 (82) 35 (49) 37 (21) 38 (42) 39 (16) 40 (49) 41 (51) 43 (23) 44 (19) 47 (8) 48 (21) 1 (320) 6 (1573) 13 (1878) 20 (1385) 34 (320) 2 (1206) 4 (883) 8 (88) 11 (211) 12 (151) 49 (11) 50 (2) 3 (980) 14 (763) 16 (387) 42 (24) 51 (1) 5 (171) 45 (49) 7 (1048) 9 (468) 15 (117) 25 (167) 46 (99) 21 (320) 17 (3693) 18 (379) 22 (38) 19 (2488) 27 (461) 36 (882) 28 (2900) 0 (1255) 1 (5170) 2 (2737) 3 (2237) 4 (947) 5 (991) 6 (920) 7 (667) 8 (613) 9 (3394) 10 (2351) 11 (463) 12 (885) 13 (2117) Communities without self-loops Figure 5: Nested structure of communities with and without city self-loops national borders do still play a role for the organization of business elites. Second, at the same time there are communities that bring together firms and cities from neighboring regions and countries. In Europe we see a southwestern and a central European community, and in Asia there are two communities as well. A closer look reveals that countries from the former British Empire are still relatively close and therefore grouped in one community: India, Australia and New Zealand. South Korea and Vietnam also belong to this group. 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 Overlap between city clusters 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 Figure 7 zooms in on Europe and gives a more detailed insight in the spatial level of corporate elite organization. The European corporate network clearly separates in distinct regional communities, but a visual inspection already shows that national borders still play an important role. Interestingly, some of the communities reflect geo-political structures now long gone. One business community follows the boundaries of Czechoslovakia; another resembles the original early 16

Figure 6: Community structure of the global network of interlocking directorates

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