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Undetermined Deaths in Leeds 2011-2013

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List of Figures Figure

List of Figures Figure 1: Diagram depicting the potential interaction between risk factors for suicide ................................................................................................................................. 12 Figure 2: Chart showing the three year average rolling suicide rate per 100,000 for the Leeds city population. ......................................................................................... 24 Figure 3: Age Distribution-Number of deaths by age ............................................... 25 Figure 4: Gender – Percentages of Male and Females in the 2011-13 audits ......... 26 Figure 5: Ethnicity (from post mortem report and place of birth) – numbers ............. 27 Figure 6: Rates of suicide amongst different gender and ethnic groups .................. 28 Figure 7: Map depicting the location of suicides for 2008-10 by postcode district .... 30 Figure 8: Map depicting the location of suicides for 2011-13 by postcode district .... 31 Figure 9: Distribution across Leeds dieprivation deciles 2011-13 ............................ 33 Figure 10: Marital Status Number of cases 2011-13; single, divorced or separated vs married, cohabitating or civil partnership .................................................................. 34 Figure 11: Depiction of risk factors identified through the audit ................................ 36 Figure 12: Method of suicide – numbers for the 2011-13 audit ................................ 40 Figure 13: Private vs Public locations for suicide. ‘Private’ includes own home and someone else’s home; ‘public locations’ includes every other location category ..... 42 Figure 14: Employment status – Number of cases ................................................... 42 Figure 15: Reason for last contact with General Practice and with Accident and Emergency/ Secondary Care – Number of cases. ................................................... 44 Figure 16: History of mental illness – percentages of cases with specific disorders 45 6

Executive Summary Suicide is a tragedy that has devastating and wide-spread effects. It is a preventable cause of early death. Those who are close to or know someone who has taken their own life can experience a range of emotions, from anger and guilt to shame because of the stigma which still surrounds suicide. It is well evidenced that those who are bereaved by suicide are at a much higher risk of ending their own life. Suicide prevention is a national priority and following the publication of ‘Preventing Suicide in England: a cross-government outcomes strategy to save lives’ 1 , local authorities have been encouraged to take a proactive role in this agenda. A key recommendation of the national strategy is to undertake a local suicide audit in order to determine the characteristics, events and risk factors that contribute to a person taking their own life. A suicide audit ensures resources and prevention interventions are targeted effectively to where there is most need. In Leeds, suicide prevention has been a priority for the city for some time. There is a long-standing, multi-agency strategic suicide prevention group, and the previous Leeds Suicide Audit 2008-2010 2 (published in 2012) is nationally recognised as best practice. The primary aim of the current audit is to contribute robust local data, which can be used in the development of a refreshed suicide prevention plan. This will ensure that resources are directed towards appropriate evidence-based interventions. A further aim is to compare the data to the 2008-10 audit and determine whether there are any significant changes in the demographics of people ending their life by suicide. Key Findings Demographics The data from the 2011-13 audit demonstrates that overall there were 213 deaths attributed to suicide. This has increased from the 179 deaths identified in the previous audit. The rate of death from suicide was 9.5 deaths per 100,000 people in Leeds. The rate from the previous audit was 8.1 deaths per 100,000. The rate of deaths from suicide has increased slightly. The most common age group was those aged 40 to 49. This was also found in the 2008-10 audit. 141 (82.6%) of the cases were male. This has increased from the previous audit which found 79% were male. 7

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