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DRAFT Inventory of U.S Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

2017_complete_report

Total

Total Emissions 6,366.7 7,315.6 6,776.0 6,536.8 6,678.9 6,736.3 6,586.2 100.0% LULUCF Sector Net Total b,c (449.1) (315.3) (375.1) (387.7) (370.4) (368.8) (366.4) (5.6%) Net Emissions (Sources and Sinks) 5,917.6 7,000.3 6,400.9 6,149.1 6,308.5 6,367.5 6,219.8 94.4% Note: Total emissions presented without LULUCF. Total net emissions presented with LULUCF. + Does not exceed 0.05 MMT CO2 Eq. or 0.05 percent. a Percent of total (gross) emissions excluding emissions from LULUCF for 2015. b The LULUCF Sector Net Total is the net sum of all emissions (i.e., sources) of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere plus removals of CO2 (i.e., sinks or negative emissions) from the atmosphere. c Quality control uncovered errors in the estimate and uncertainty of soil C stock changes for 2013, 2014, 2015, which will be updated following public review. Corrected estimates are provided in footnotes of the emission summary tables for Cropland Remaining Cropland, Land Converted to Cropland, Grassland Remaining Grassland, and Land Converted to Grassland sections in the LULUCF chapter of this report. Notes: Totals may not sum due to independent rounding. Parentheses indicate negative values or sequestration. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Emissions with Electricity Distributed to Economic Sectors It can also be useful to view greenhouse gas emissions from economic sectors with emissions related to electricity generation distributed into end-use categories (i.e., emissions from electricity generation are allocated to the economic sectors in which the electricity is consumed). The generation, transmission, and distribution of electricity, which is the largest economic sector in the United States, accounted for 29 percent of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 2015. Emissions increased by 4 percent since 1990, as electricity demand grew and fossil fuels remained the dominant energy source for generation. Electricity generation-related emissions decreased from 2014 to 2015 by 6.7 percent, primarily due to decreased CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion due to an increase in natural gas consumption, and decreased coal consumption. Electricity sales to the residential and commercial enduse sectors in 2015 decreased by 0.2 percent and increased by 0.6 percent, respectively. The trend in the residential and commercial sectors can largely be attributed to warmer, less energy-intensive winter conditions compared to 2014. Electricity sales to the industrial sector in 2015 decreased by approximately 1.1 percent. Overall, in 2015, the amount of electricity generated (in kWh) decreased by 0.2 percent from the previous year. This decrease in generation contributed to a reduction in CO 2 emissions from the electric power sector of 6.7 percent, as the consumption of CO 2-intensive coal for electricity generation decreased by 13.9 percent and natural gas generation increased by 18.7 percent. The consumption of petroleum for electricity generation decreased by 6.6 percent in 2015 relative to 2014. Table 2-11 provides a detailed summary of emissions from electricity generation-related activities. Table 2-11: Electricity Generation-Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions (MMT CO2 Eq.) Gas/Fuel Type or Source 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 CO2 1,831.2 2,416.5 2,172.9 2,036.6 2,053.7 2,054.5 1,916.8 Fossil Fuel Combustion 1,820.8 2,400.9 2,157.7 2,022.2 2,038.1 2,038.0 1,900.7 Coal 1,547.6 1,983.8 1,722.7 1,511.2 1,571.3 1,569.1 1,350.5 Natural Gas 175.3 318.8 408.8 492.2 444.0 443.2 526.1 Petroleum 97.5 97.9 25.8 18.3 22.4 25.3 23.7 Geothermal 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 Incineration of Waste 8.0 12.5 10.6 10.4 10.4 10.6 10.7 Other Process Uses of Carbonates 2.5 3.2 4.7 4.0 5.2 5.9 5.4 CH4 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 Stationary Sources (Electricity Generation) 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 Incineration of Waste + + + + + + + N2O 7.8 16.4 17.9 18.1 19.4 19.9 19.8 Stationary Sources (Electricity Generation) 7.4 16.0 17.6 17.8 19.1 19.6 19.5 Incineration of Waste 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 SF6 23.1 8.3 6.0 4.8 4.6 4.8 4.2 Electrical Transmission and Distribution 23.1 8.3 6.0 4.8 4.6 4.8 4.2 Trends 2-25

Total 1,862.5 2,441.6 2,197.3 2,059.9 2,078.2 2,079.7 1,941.2 + Does not exceed 0.05 MMT CO2 Eq. a Includes only stationary combustion emissions related to the generation of electricity. Note: Totals may not sum due to independent rounding. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 To distribute electricity emissions among economic end-use sectors, emissions from the source categories assigned to the electricity generation sector were allocated to the residential, commercial, industry, transportation, and agriculture economic sectors according to each economic sector’s share of retail sales of electricity consumption (EIA 2016 and Duffield 2006). These source categories include CO 2 from Fossil Fuel Combustion, CH 4 and N 2O from Stationary Combustion, Incineration of Waste, Other Process Uses of Carbonates, and SF 6 from Electrical Transmission and Distribution Systems. Note that only 50 percent of the Other Process Uses of Carbonates emissions were associated with electricity generation and distributed as described; the remainder of Other Process Uses of Carbonates emissions were attributed to the industrial processes economic end-use sector. 5 When emissions from electricity are distributed among these sectors, industrial activities account for the largest share of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions (29.7 percent), followed closely by emissions from transportation (27.4 percent). Emissions from the residential and commercial sectors also increase substantially when emissions from electricity are included. In all sectors except agriculture, CO 2 accounts for more than 80 percent of greenhouse gas emissions, primarily from the combustion of fossil fuels. Table 2-12 presents a detailed breakdown of emissions from each of these economic sectors, with emissions from electricity generation distributed to them. Figure 2-13 shows the trend in these emissions by sector from 1990 to 2015. Figure 2-13: U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions with Electricity-Related Emissions Distributed to Economic Sectors (MMT CO2 Eq.) 19 20 5 Emissions were not distributed to U.S. Territories, since the electricity generation sector only includes emissions related to the generation of electricity in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. 2-26 DRAFT Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2015

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    Residential 338.3 357.8 325.5 282.5

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    Forest Land Remaining Forest Land:

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    1 Table 3-20: Adjusted Consumption

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    Gas/Waste Product 1990 2005 2011 20

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    Activity 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2

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    Previous Estimated Emissions from S

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    Emissions (w/o Plunger) (MT) 372,28

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    Reciprocating Compressors 64,413 64

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    CO2 206.8 189.9 172.9 169.6 171.5 1

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    2012 13.8 13,785 2013 14.0 14,028 2

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    1 2 3 MMT CO 2 Eq. (10,828 kt) (see

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    1 Table 4-89: CO2 Emissions from Zi

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    + Does not exceed 0.05 MMT CO2 Eq.

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    Land Converted to Forest Land (92.0

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    Belowground Live Biomass 2.3 2.0 2.

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    Other Lands Converted Grassland Min

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    1 2 3 4 result in cessation of emis

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    New Mexico 70,608 52,250 12.0 0.263

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    C Storage Factor, Proportion of Ini

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    2013 321 10,536 2014 323 10,613 201

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    1 2 Table 7-16: Approach 2 Quantita

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    Enteric Fermentation NC NC + NC + (

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