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DRAFT Inventory of U.S Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

2017_complete_report

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Box 3-2: Energy Data from the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program On October 30, 2009, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a rule for the mandatory reporting of greenhouse gases from large greenhouse gas emissions sources in the United States. Implementation of 40 CFR Part 98 is referred to as the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP). 40 CFR Part 98 applies to direct greenhouse gas emitters, fossil fuel suppliers, industrial gas suppliers, and facilities that inject CO 2 underground for sequestration or other reasons. Reporting is at the facility level, except for certain suppliers of fossil fuels and industrial greenhouse gases. 40 CFR part 98 requires reporting by 41 industrial categories. Data reporting by affected facilities included the reporting of emissions from fuel combustion at that affected facility. In general, the threshold for reporting is 25,000 metric tons or more of CO 2 Eq. per year. EPA’s GHGRP dataset and the data presented in this Inventory report are complementary and, as indicated in the respective Planned Improvements sections for source categories in this chapter, EPA is analyzing how to use facility-level GHGRP data to improve the national estimates presented in this Inventory (see, also, Box 3-4). Most methodologies used in EPA’s GHGRP are consistent with IPCC, though for EPA’s GHGRP, facilities collect detailed information specific to their operations according to detailed measurement standards, which may differ with the more aggregated data collected for the Inventory to estimate total, national U.S. emissions. It should be noted that the definitions and provisions for reporting fuel types in EPA’s GHGRP may differ from those used in the Inventory in meeting the UNFCCC reporting guidelines. In line with the UNFCCC reporting guidelines, the Inventory report is a comprehensive accounting of all emissions from fuel types identified in the IPCC guidelines and provides a separate reporting of emissions from biomass. Further information on the reporting categorizations in EPA’s GHGRP and specific data caveats associated with monitoring methods in EPA’s GHGRP has been provided on the GHGRP website. EPA presents the data collected by its GHGRP through a data publication tool that allows data to be viewed in several formats including maps, tables, charts and graphs for individual facilities or groups of facilities. 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 3.1 Fossil Fuel Combustion (IPCC Source Category 1A) Emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy include the gases CO 2, CH 4, and N 2O. Given that CO 2 is the primary gas emitted from fossil fuel combustion and represents the largest share of U.S. total emissions, CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion are discussed at the beginning of this section. Following that is a discussion of emissions of all three gases from fossil fuel combustion presented by sectoral breakdowns. Methodologies for estimating CO 2 from fossil fuel combustion also differ from the estimation of CH 4 and N 2O emissions from stationary combustion and mobile combustion. Thus, three separate descriptions of methodologies, uncertainties, recalculations, and planned improvements are provided at the end of this section. Total CO 2, CH 4, and N 2O emissions from fossil fuel combustion are presented in Table 3-3 and Table 3-4. Table 3-3: CO2, CH4, and N2O Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion (MMT CO2 Eq.) Gas 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 CO2 4,740.7 5,747.1 5,227.7 5,024.7 5,157.6 5,202.1 5,049.2 CH4 14.1 10.2 9.3 8.8 10.1 10.2 9.0 N2O 53.1 56.0 44.2 41.8 41.5 40.0 38.5 Total 4,807.9 5,813.4 5,281.2 5,075.3 5,209.2 5,252.3 5,096.7 Note: Totals may not sum due to independent rounding 3-4 DRAFT Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2015

1 Table 3-4: CO2, CH4, and N2O Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion (kt) Gas 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 CO2 4,740,671 5,747,142 5,227,690 5,024,685 5,157,583 5,202,139 5,049,159 CH4 565 408 374 352 405 406 360 N2O 178 188 148 140 139 134 129 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 CO 2 from Fossil Fuel Combustion Carbon dioxide is the primary gas emitted from fossil fuel combustion and represents the largest share of U.S. total greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion are presented in Table 3-5. In 2015, CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion decreased by 2.9 percent relative to the previous year. The decrease in CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion was a result of multiple factors, including: (1) substitution from coal to natural gas consumption in the electric power sector; (2) warmer winter conditions in the first quarter of 2015 resulting in a decreased demand for heating fuel in the residential and commercial sectors; and (3) a slight decrease in electricity demand. In 2015, CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion were 5,049.2 MMT CO 2 Eq., or 6.5 percent above emissions in 1990 (see Table 3-5). 4 Table 3-5: CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion by Fuel Type and Sector (MMT CO2 Eq.) Fuel/Sector 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Coal 1,718.4 2,112.3 1,813.9 1,592.8 1,654.4 1,652.0 1,422.7 Residential 3.0 0.8 NO NO NO NO NO Commercial 12.0 9.3 5.8 4.1 3.9 3.8 2.9 Industrial 155.3 115.3 82.0 74.1 75.7 75.6 65.9 Transportation NE NE NE NE NE NE NE Electricity Generation 1,547.6 1,983.8 1,722.7 1,511.2 1,571.3 1,569.1 1,350.5 U.S. Territories 0.6 3.0 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 Natural Gas 1,000.3 1,166.7 1,291.5 1,352.6 1,391.2 1,422.2 1,463.8 Residential 238.0 262.2 254.7 224.8 266.2 277.9 252.8 Commercial 142.1 162.9 170.5 156.9 179.1 189.3 175.4 Industrial 408.9 388.5 417.3 434.8 451.9 468.4 467.5 Transportation 36.0 33.1 38.9 41.3 47.0 40.3 38.8 Electricity Generation 175.3 318.8 408.8 492.2 444.0 443.2 526.1 U.S. Territories NO 1.3 1.4 2.6 3.0 3.2 3.2 Petroleum 2,021.5 2,467.8 2,121.9 2,078.9 2,111.6 2,127.5 2,162.3 Residential 97.4 94.9 70.9 57.7 63.4 67.5 66.8 Commercial 63.3 51.3 44.1 35.7 38.0 38.3 47.3 Industrial 278.3 324.2 275.7 274.1 284.6 271.7 295.5 Transportation 1,457.7 1,854.0 1,668.8 1,655.4 1,666.0 1,690.1 1,694.5 Electricity Generation 97.5 97.9 25.8 18.3 22.4 25.3 23.7 U.S. Territories 27.2 45.6 36.7 37.6 37.1 34.6 34.6 Geothermal a 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 Total 4,740.7 5,747.1 5,227.7 5,024.7 5,157.6 5,202.1 5,049.2 + Does not exceed 0.05 MMT CO2 Eq. NE (Not Estimated) NO (Not Occurring) a Although not technically a fossil fuel, geothermal energy-related CO2 emissions are included for reporting purposes. Note: Totals may not sum due to independent rounding. 4 An additional discussion of fossil fuel emission trends is presented in the Trends in U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions chapter. Energy 3-5

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 irreversible accumulati

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    Forest Land Remaining Forest Land:

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    Activity 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2

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    Previous Estimated Emissions from S

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    Emissions (w/o Plunger) (MT) 372,28

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    Reciprocating Compressors 64,413 64

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    CO2 206.8 189.9 172.9 169.6 171.5 1

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    2012 13.8 13,785 2013 14.0 14,028 2

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    1 Table 4-89: CO2 Emissions from Zi

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    Other Lands Converted Grassland Min

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    New Mexico 70,608 52,250 12.0 0.263

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    C Storage Factor, Proportion of Ini

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Table 7-6 pres

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    2013 321 10,536 2014 323 10,613 201

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    a Miscellaneous includes TSDFs (Tre

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    Enteric Fermentation NC NC + NC + (

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