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DRAFT Inventory of U.S Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

2017_complete_report

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Inventory and is fully in line with IPCC Good Practice Guidance. A detailed description of the U.S. methodology is presented in Annex 2.1, and is characterized by the following steps: 1. Determine total fuel consumption by fuel type and sector. Total fossil fuel consumption for each year is estimated by aggregating consumption data by end-use sector (e.g., commercial, industrial, etc.), primary fuel type (e.g., coal, petroleum, gas), and secondary fuel category (e.g., motor gasoline, distillate fuel oil, etc.). Fuel consumption data for the United States were obtained directly from the EIA of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), primarily from the Monthly Energy Review and published supplemental tables on petroleum product detail (EIA 2016a). The EIA does not include territories in its national energy statistics, so fuel consumption data for territories were collected separately from EIA’s International Energy Statistics (EIA 2014) and Jacobs (2010). 31 For consistency of reporting, the IPCC has recommended that countries report energy data using the International Energy Agency (IEA) reporting convention and/or IEA data. Data in the IEA format are presented "top down"—that is, energy consumption for fuel types and categories are estimated from energy production data (accounting for imports, exports, stock changes, and losses). The resulting quantities are referred to as "apparent consumption." The data collected in the United States by EIA on an annual basis and used in this Inventory are predominantly from mid-stream or conversion energy consumers such as refiners and electric power generators. These annual surveys are supplemented with end-use energy consumption surveys, such as the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey, that are conducted on a periodic basis (every four years). These consumption data sets help inform the annual surveys to arrive at the national total and sectoral breakdowns for that total. 32 Also, note that U.S. fossil fuel energy statistics are generally presented using gross calorific values (GCV) (i.e., higher heating values). Fuel consumption activity data presented here have not been adjusted to correspond to international standards, which are to report energy statistics in terms of net calorific values (NCV) (i.e., lower heating values). 33 2. Subtract uses accounted for in the Industrial Processes and Product Use chapter. Portions of the fuel consumption data for seven fuel categories—coking coal, distillate fuel, industrial other coal, petroleum coke, natural gas, residual fuel oil, and other oil—were reallocated to the Industrial Processes and Product Use chapter, as they were consumed during non-energy related industrial activity. To make these adjustments, additional data were collected from AISI (2004 through 2016), Coffeyville (2012), U.S. Census Bureau (2001 through 2011), EIA (2016a, 2016b, 2016c), USAA (2008 through 2016), USGS (1991 through 2015a), (USGS 2016a), USGS (2014 through 2016a), USGS (2014 through 2016b), USGS (1995 through 2013), USGS (1995, 1998, 2000, 2001), USGS (2016b), USGS (20016c), USGS (2015a), USGS (1991 through 2013), USGS (2016d), USGS (2015b), USGS (2014), USGS (1996 through 2013), USGS (1991 through 2015b), USGS (2015 and 2016), USGS (1991 through 2015c). 34 3. Adjust for conversion of fuels and exports of CO 2. Fossil fuel consumption estimates are adjusted downward to exclude fuels created from other fossil fuels and exports of CO 2. 35 Synthetic natural gas is created from industrial coal, and is currently included in EIA statistics for both coal and natural gas. Therefore, synthetic natural gas is subtracted from energy consumption statistics. 36 Since October 2000, the 31 Fuel consumption by U.S. Territories (i.e., American Samoa, Guam, Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands, Wake Island, and other U.S. Pacific Islands) is included in this report and contributed total emissions of 41.4 MMT CO2 Eq. in 2015. 32 See IPCC Reference Approach for Estimating CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion in Annex 4 for a comparison of U.S. estimates using top-down and bottom-up approaches. 33 A crude convention to convert between gross and net calorific values is to multiply the heat content of solid and liquid fossil fuels by 0.95 and gaseous fuels by 0.9 to account for the water content of the fuels. Biomass-based fuels in U.S. energy statistics, however, are generally presented using net calorific values. 34 See sections on Iron and Steel Production and Metallurgical Coke Production, Ammonia Production and Urea Consumption, Petrochemical Production, Titanium Dioxide Production, Ferroalloy Production, Aluminum Production, and Silicon Carbide Production and Consumption in the Industrial Processes and Product Use chapter. 35 Energy statistics from EIA (2016a) are already adjusted downward to account for ethanol added to motor gasoline, biodiesel added to diesel fuel, and biogas in natural gas. 36 These adjustments are explained in greater detail in Annex 2.1. 3-26 DRAFT Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2015

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Dakota Gasification Plant has been exporting CO 2 to Canada by pipeline. Since this CO 2 is not emitted to the atmosphere in the United States, energy used to produce this CO 2 is subtracted from energy consumption statistics. To make these adjustments, additional data for ethanol and biodiesel were collected from EIA (2016a), data for synthetic natural gas were collected from EIA (2016b), and data for CO 2 exports were collected from the Eastman Gasification Services Company (2011), Dakota Gasification Company (2006), Fitzpatrick (2002), Erickson (2003), EIA (2008) and DOE (2012). 4. Adjust Sectoral Allocation of Distillate Fuel Oil and Motor Gasoline. EPA had conducted a separate bottom-up analysis of transportation fuel consumption based on data from the Federal Highway Administration that indicated that the amount of distillate and motor gasoline consumption allocated to the transportation sector in the EIA statistics should be adjusted. Therefore, for these estimates, the transportation sector’s distillate fuel and motor gasoline consumption was adjusted to match the value obtained from the bottom-up analysis. As the total distillate and motor gasoline consumption estimate from EIA are considered to be accurate at the national level, the distillate and motor gasoline consumption totals for the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors were adjusted proportionately. The data sources used in the bottom-up analysis of transportation fuel consumption include AAR (2008 through 2016), Benson (2002 through 2004), DOE (1993 through 2016), EIA (2007), EIA (1991 through 2016), EPA (2016d), and FHWA (1996 through 2016). 37 5. Adjust for fuels consumed for non-energy uses. U.S. aggregate energy statistics include consumption of fossil fuels for non-energy purposes. These are fossil fuels that are manufactured into plastics, asphalt, lubricants, or other products. Depending on the end-use, this can result in storage of some or all of the C contained in the fuel for a period of time. As the emission pathways of C used for non-energy purposes are vastly different than fuel combustion (since the C in these fuels ends up in products instead of being combusted), these emissions are estimated separately in Section 3.2 – Carbon Emitted and Stored in Products from Non-Energy Uses of Fossil Fuels. Therefore, the amount of fuels used for non-energy purposes was subtracted from total fuel consumption. Data on non-fuel consumption was provided by EIA (2016a). 6. Subtract consumption of international bunker fuels. According to the UNFCCC reporting guidelines emissions from international transport activities, or bunker fuels, should not be included in national totals. U.S. energy consumption statistics include these bunker fuels (e.g., distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, and jet fuel) as part of consumption by the transportation end-use sector, however, so emissions from international transport activities were calculated separately following the same procedures used for emissions from consumption of all fossil fuels (i.e., estimation of consumption, and determination of C content). 38 The Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Installations and Environment) and the Defense Logistics Agency Energy (DLA Energy) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) (DLA Energy 2016) supplied data on military jet fuel and marine fuel use. Commercial jet fuel use was obtained from FAA (2017); residual and distillate fuel use for civilian marine bunkers was obtained from DOC (1991 through 2016) for 1990 through 2001 and 2007 through 2014, and DHS (2008) for 2003 through 2006. Consumption of these fuels was subtracted from the corresponding fuels in the transportation end-use sector. Estimates of international bunker fuel emissions for the United States are discussed in detail in Section 3.9 – International Bunker Fuels. 7. Determine the total C content of fuels consumed. Total C was estimated by multiplying the amount of fuel consumed by the amount of C in each fuel. This total C estimate defines the maximum amount of C that could potentially be released to the atmosphere if all of the C in each fuel was converted to CO 2. The C content coefficients used by the United States were obtained from EIA’s Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2008 (EIA 2009a), and an EPA analysis of C content coefficients used in the GHGRP 37 Bottom-up gasoline and diesel highway vehicle fuel consumption estimates are based on data from FHWA Highway Statistics Table MF-21, MF-27, and VM-1 (FHWA 1996 through 2016). In 2016, FHWA changed its methods for estimating the share of motor gasoline used in on-highway and off-highway applications. This resulted in an increase in the estimated off-highway motor gasoline consumption (including consumption in the commercial and industrial sectors of this Inventory) and subsequent decrease in the on-highway motor gasoline consumption for 2015. Note that EPA plans to integrate new 2014 data for the final 1990 to 2015 Inventory report, which is discussed in the Planned Improvements section below. 38 See International Bunker Fuels section in this chapter for a more detailed discussion. Energy 3-27

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    a Emissions from Wood Biomass and E

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    Electrical Transmission and Distrib

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    Emissions (w/o Plunger) (MT) 372,28

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    Reciprocating Compressors 64,413 64

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    1 Table 4-89: CO2 Emissions from Zi

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    Land Converted to Forest Land (92.0

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    Other Lands Converted Grassland Min

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    New Mexico 70,608 52,250 12.0 0.263

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    C Storage Factor, Proportion of Ini

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    1 Table 7-2: Emissions from Waste (

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Table 7-6 pres

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    2013 321 10,536 2014 323 10,613 201

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    1 2 Table 7-16: Approach 2 Quantita

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 EF i = emissio

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    a Miscellaneous includes TSDFs (Tre

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    Enteric Fermentation NC NC + NC + (

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Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Heavy-Duty Trucks
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