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DRAFT Inventory of U.S Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

2017_complete_report

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Oil Industry (EPA 1999), consensus of industry peer review panels, BOEMRE and BOEM reports (BOEMRE 2004; BOEM 2011), analysis of BOEMRE data (EPA 2005; BOEMRE 2004), the Oil & Gas Journal (OGJ 2016), the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC 2012), the United States Army Corps of Engineers, (1995 through 2016), and the GHGRP (2010 through 2015). For many sources, complete activity data were not available for all years of the time series. In such cases, one of three approaches was employed to estimate values, consistent with IPCC good practice. Where appropriate, the activity data were calculated from related statistics using ratios developed based on EPA 1996, and/or GHGRP data. For floating roof tanks, the activity data were held constant from 1990 through 2015 based on EPA (1999). In some cases, activity data are developed by interpolating between recent data points (such as from GHGRP) and earlier data points, such as from GRI 1996. Lastly, the previous year’s data were used for domestic barges and tankers as current year were not yet available. For offshore production, the number of platforms in shallow water and the number of platforms in deep water are used as activity data and are taken from Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) (formerly Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement [BOEMRE]) datasets (BOEM 2011a,b,c). For petroleum refining activities, 2010 to 2015 emissions were directly obtained from EPA’s GHGRP. All U.S. refineries have been required to report CH 4 and CO 2 emissions for all major activities starting with emissions that occurred in 2010. The national totals of these emissions for each activity were used for the 2010 to 2015 emissions. The national emission totals for each activity were divided by refinery feed rates for those inventory years to develop average activity-specific emission factors, which were used to estimate national emissions for each refinery activity from 1990 to 2009 based on national refinery feed rates for each year (EPA 2015c). The inventory estimate for Petroleum Systems takes into account Natural Gas STAR reductions. Voluntary reductions included in the Petroleum Systems calculations were those reported to Natural Gas STAR for the following activities: artificial lift - gas lift; artificial lift - use compression; artificial lift - use pumping unit; consolidate crude oil production and water storage tanks; lower heater-treater temperature; re-inject gas for enhanced oil recovery; re-inject gas into crude; and route casinghead gas to vapor recovery unit or compressor. The methodology for estimating CO 2 emissions from petroleum systems includes calculation of vented, fugitive, and process upset emissions sources from 26 activities for crude oil production field operations and three activities from petroleum refining. Generally, emissions are estimated for each activity by multiplying CO 2 emission factors by their corresponding activity data. The production field operations emission factors for CO 2 are generally estimated by multiplying the CH 4 emission factors by a conversion factor, which is the ratio of CO 2 content and CH 4 content in produced associated gas. One exception to this methodology are emission factors for offshore oil production (shallow and deep water), which were derived using data from BOEM (EPA 2015b; BOEM 2014). For the three petroleum refining activities (i.e., flares, asphalt blowing, and process vents); the CO 2 emissions data for 2010 to 2014 were directly obtained from the GHGRP. The 2010 to 2013 CO 2 emissions data from GHGRP along with the refinery feed data for 2010 to 2013 were used to derive CO 2 emission factors (i.e., sum of activity emissions/sum of refinery feed) which were then applied to the annual refinery feed to estimate CO 2 emissions for 1990 to 2009. Uncertainty and Time-Series Consistency EPA’s planned uncertainty analysis is discussed in the Planned Improvements section. New data available starting in 2010 for refineries and in 2011 for other sources have improved estimates of emissions from Petroleum Systems. Many of the previously available data sets were collected in the 1990s. To develop a consistent time series for 1990-2015, for sources with new data, EPA reviewed available information on factors that may have resulted in changes over the time series (e.g. regulations, voluntary actions) and requested stakeholder feedback on trends as well. For most sources, EPA developed annual data for 1993-2010 by interpolating activity data or emission factors or both between 1992 and 2011 data points. Information on time-series consistency for sources updated in this public review draft can be found in the Recalculation Discussion below, with additional detail provided in the 2017 Production Memo. For information on other sources, please see the Methodology Discussion above. 3-64 DRAFT Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2015

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 QA/QC and Verification Discussion The petroleum system emission estimates in the Inventory are continually being reviewed and assessed to determine whether emission factors and activity factors accurately reflect current industry practices. A QA/QC analysis was performed for data gathering and input, documentation, and calculation. QA/QC checks are consistently conducted to minimize human error in the model calculations. EPA performs a thorough review of information associated with new studies, GHGRP data, regulations, public webcasts, and the Natural Gas STAR Program to assess whether the assumptions in the Inventory are consistent with current industry practices. The EPA has a multi-step data verification process for GHGRP data, including automatic checks during data-entry, statistical analyses on completed reports, and staff review of the reported data. Based on the results of the verification process, the EPA follows up with facilities to resolve mistakes that may have occurred. As in previous years, EPA conducted early engagement and communication with stakeholders on updates prior to public review. In December 2016 and January 2017, EPA stakeholder webinars on GHG data for oil and gas. In early 2017, EPA released memos detailing updates under consideration and requesting stakeholder feedback. EPA discusses preliminary stakeholder feedback received in the public review draft. EPA continues to receive and review feedback on the options presented, and may revise the recalculations in the final 1990-2015 Inventory based on that feedback. In recent years, several studies have measured emissions at the source level and at the national or regional level and calculated emissions estimates that may differ from the GHG Inventory. There are a variety of potential uses of data from new studies, including replacing a previous estimate or factor, verifying or QA of an existing estimate or factor, and identifying areas for updates. In general, there are two major types of studies related to oil and gas greenhouse gas data: studies that focus on measurement or quantification of emissions from specific activities, processes and equipment, and studies that focus on verification of estimates through inverse modeling. The first type of study can lead to direct improvements to or verification of GHG Inventory estimates. In the past few years, EPA has reviewed and in many cases, incorporated data from these data sources. The second type of study can provide general indications on potential over- and under-estimates. A key challenge in using these types of studies to assess GHG Inventory results is having a relevant basis for comparison. In an effort to improve the ability to compare the national-level GHG inventory with measurement results that may be at other scales, a team at Harvard University along with EPA and other coauthors developed a gridded inventory of U.S. anthropogenic methane emissions with 0.1° x 0.1° spatial resolution, monthly temporal resolution, and detailed scale-dependent error characterization. 75 The inventory is designed to be consistent with the 2016 U.S. EPA Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks (1990-2014) estimates for the year 2012, which presents national totals for different source types. 76 Recalculations Discussion The EPA received information and data related to the emission estimates through the Inventory preparation process, previous Inventories’ formal public notice periods, GHGRP reporting, and new studies. The EPA carefully evaluated relevant information available, and made updates to the production segment methodology for this public review draft of the Inventory including revised well count, equipment count, and pneumatic controller activity data, and revised activity and emissions data for tanks and associated gas venting and flaring. In January 2017, the EPA released a draft memorandum, Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks 1990-2014: Revisions under Consideration for Natural Gas and Petroleum Systems Production Emissions, referred to below as “2017 Production Memo,” that discussed the changes under consideration and requested stakeholder feedback on those changes. 77 In this public review draft of the Inventory, EPA has selected from the options presented in the 2017 Production Memo to develop emissions estimates. EPA continues to receive and review 75 See . 76 See . 77 See . Energy 3-65

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 irreversible accumulati

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    a Emission estimates reported in th

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    a Emissions from Wood Biomass and E

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    1 2 Table 2-8: U.S. Greenhouse Gas

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    1 2 3 4 Overall, in 2015, waste act

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    Cement Production 33.3 45.9 32.0 35

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    Total 1,862.5 2,441.6 2,197.3 2,059

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    Total Emissions 6,366.7 7,315.6 6,7

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    N2O 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 Oth

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    U.S. Territories a 28.0 50.1 41.7 4

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    1 Table 4-89: CO2 Emissions from Zi

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    Other Lands Converted Grassland Min

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    New Mexico 70,608 52,250 12.0 0.263

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    C Storage Factor, Proportion of Ini

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    1 Table 7-2: Emissions from Waste (

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Table 7-6 pres

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    2013 321 10,536 2014 323 10,613 201

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 %Plants a %Plants

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    1 2 Table 7-16: Approach 2 Quantita

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 EF i = emissio

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    a Miscellaneous includes TSDFs (Tre

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    Enteric Fermentation NC NC + NC + (

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Quality manual for the greenhouse gas inventory. Version 1.
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