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DRAFT Inventory of U.S Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

2017_complete_report

1 2 3 will review

1 2 3 will review and potentially incorporate data from Gas STAR’s Methane Challenge program as it becomes available as part of process for compiling future inventories. Table 3-45: Gas STAR Reductions (Metric Tons CH4) Source 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Production Gas STAR Reductions - (35,828) (44,940) (45,081) (30,903) (30,903) (30,903) Production Emissions w/o Gas STAR Reductions 2,300,010 1,924,554 2,015,621 1,947,513 1,861,6170 1,795,210 1,656,584 Production Emissions w/ Gas STAR Reductions 2,299,856 1,888,726 1,970,681 1,902,431 1,830,714 1,764,308 1,625,682 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Information on Abandoned Wells Abandoned wells are not currently included in the Inventory. EPA is seeking emission factors and national activity data available to calculate these emissions. Commenters on previous inventories supported including this source category, noted that the current data were limited, and suggested reviewing data that will become available in the future. EPA has identified studies with data on abandoned wells (Townsend-Small et al. 2016 and Kang et al. 2016), and EPA may provide an information box on this source (without including the estimate in emissions totals) in the final Inventory and will consider including an estimate for this source in future inventories. Plans for 2018 GHG Inventory (1990-2016) and Future GHG Inventories EPA will review data available from the GHGRP, in particular new data on hydraulically fractured oil well completions and workovers and new well-specific information, available in 2017 for the first time. EPA will consider revising its method to take into account the new GHGRP data. EPA will continue to review CO 2 data from GHGRP and make updates consistent with CH 4 updates as appropriate. EPA will review data available from the recent Information Collection Request (ICR) for the oil and natural gas industry 79 for potential updates to the Inventory, including improving national-level activity data estimates, and will assess new data received by the Methane Challenge Program on an ongoing basis, which may be used to confirm or improve existing estimates and assumptions. EPA continues to track studies that contain data that may be used to update the Inventory. EPA seeks stakeholder feedback on these future plans. Box 3-7: Carbon Dioxide Transport, Injection, and Geological Storage Carbon dioxide is produced, captured, transported, and used for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) as well as commercial and non-EOR industrial applications. This CO 2 is produced from both naturally-occurring CO 2 reservoirs and from industrial sources such as natural gas processing plants and ammonia plants. In the Inventory, emissions from naturally-produced CO 2 are estimated based on the specific application. In the Inventory, CO 2 that is used in non-EOR industrial and commercial applications (e.g., food processing, chemical production) is assumed to be emitted to the atmosphere during its industrial use. These emissions are discussed in the Carbon Dioxide Consumption section. The naturally-occurring CO 2 used in EOR operations is assumed to be fully sequestered. Additionally, all anthropogenic CO 2 emitted from natural gas processing and ammonia plants is assumed to be emitted to the atmosphere, regardless of whether the CO 2 is captured or not. These emissions are currently included in the Natural Gas Systems and the Ammonia Production sections of the Inventory report, respectively. IPCC includes methodological guidance to estimate emissions from the capture, transport, injection, and geological storage of CO 2. The methodology is based on the principle that the carbon capture and storage system should be 79 https://www.epa.gov/controlling-air-pollution-oil-and-natural-gas-industry/oil-and-gas-industry-information-requests 3-70 DRAFT Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2015

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 handled in a complete and consistent manner across the entire Energy sector. The approach accounts for CO 2 captured at natural and industrial sites as well as emissions from capture, transport, and use. For storage specifically, a Tier 3 methodology is outlined for estimating and reporting emissions based on site-specific evaluations. However, IPCC (IPCC 2006) notes that if a national regulatory process exists, emissions information available through that process may support development of CO 2 emissions estimates for geologic storage. In the United States, facilities that produce CO 2 for various end-use applications (including capture facilities such as acid gas removal plants and ammonia plants), importers of CO 2, exporters of CO 2, facilities that conduct geologic sequestration of CO 2, and facilities that inject CO 2 underground (including facilities conducting EOR), are required to report greenhouse gas data annually to EPA through its GHGRP. Facilities conducting geologic sequestration of CO 2 are required to develop and implement an EPA-approved site-specific monitoring, reporting and verification plan, and to report the amount of CO 2 sequestered using a mass balance approach. Available GHGRP data relevant for this inventory estimate consists of national-level annual quantities of CO 2 captured and extracted for EOR applications for 2010 to 2015. For 2015, data from EPA’s GHGRP (Subpart PP) were unavailable for use in the current Inventory report due data confidentiality reasons. A linear trend extrapolation was performed based on previous GHGRP reporting years (2010-2014) to estimate 2015 emissions. EPA will continue to evaluate the availability of additional GHGRP data and other opportunities for improving the emission estimates. These estimates indicate that the amount of CO 2 captured and extracted from industrial and natural sites for EOR applications in 2015 is 61.0 MMT CO 2 Eq. (60,988 kt) (see Table 3-46 and Table 3-47). Site-specific monitoring and reporting data for CO 2 injection sites (i.e., EOR operations) were not readily available, therefore, these estimates assume all CO 2 is emitted. Table 3-46: Potential Emissions from CO2 Capture and Extraction for EOR Operations (MMT CO2 Eq.) Stage 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Capture Facilities 4.8 6.5 9.9 9.3 12.2 13.1 13.5 Extraction Facilities 20.8 28.3 48.4 48.9 47.0 46.2 47.5 Total 25.6 34.7 58.2 58.1 59.2 59.3 61.0 24 Table 3-47: Potential Emissions from CO2 Capture and Extraction for EOR Operations (kt) Stage 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Capture Facilities 4,832 6,475 9,877 9,267 12,205 13,093 13,483 Extraction Facilities 20,811 28,267 48,370 48,869 46,984 46,225 47,505 Total 25,643 34,742 58,247 58,136 59,189 59,318 60,988 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 3.7 Natural Gas Systems (IPCC Source Category 1B2b) EPA is seeking stakeholder feedback on a number of options for updating the emissions estimates in this section. See Recalculations Discussion below for methods used in the development of the public review draft, and EPA’s memos on updates under consideration for other options being considered: https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/updates-under-consideration-petroleum-and-natural-gas-systems-1990-2015- ghg-inventory. It is likely that the methods presented here and the calculated emissions totals will change due to revisions between this public review draft of the Inventory and the final Inventory, but impacts on the total emissions estimate are expected to be minor. See the recalculations discussion below for more details. Note that 2014 results Energy 3-71

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    a Emissions from Wood Biomass and E

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    1 2 3 4 Overall, in 2015, waste act

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    Cement Production 33.3 45.9 32.0 35

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    Total 1,862.5 2,441.6 2,197.3 2,059

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    Total Emissions 6,366.7 7,315.6 6,7

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    N2O 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 Oth

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    International Bunker Fuels a 0.2 0.

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    New Mexico 70,608 52,250 12.0 0.263

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    C Storage Factor, Proportion of Ini

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    2013 321 10,536 2014 323 10,613 201

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 %Plants a %Plants

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    1 2 Table 7-16: Approach 2 Quantita

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 EF i = emissio

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    a Miscellaneous includes TSDFs (Tre

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    Enteric Fermentation NC NC + NC + (

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