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DRAFT Inventory of U.S Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

2017_complete_report

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 Table 6-55: Net CO 2 Flux from Soil C Stock Changes in Vegetated Coastal Wetlands Converted to Unvegetated Open Water Coastal Wetlands (MMT CO 2 Eq.) ..................................................................................................... 6-88 Table 6-56: Net CO 2 Flux from Soil C Stock Changes in Vegetated Coastal Wetlands Converted to Unvegetated Open Water Coastal Wetlands (MMT C) ................................................................................................................ 6-88 Table 6-57: Approach 1 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for Net CO 2 Flux occurring within Vegetated Coastal Wetlands Converted to Unvegetated Open Water Coastal Wetlands (MMT CO 2 Eq. and Percent) ....................... 6-89 Table 6-58: Net CO 2 Flux from Soil C Stock Changes from Unvegetated Open Water Coastal Wetlands Converted to Vegetated Coastal Wetlands (MMT CO 2 Eq.) ..................................................................................................... 6-91 Table 6-59: Net CO 2 Flux from Soil C Stock Changes from Unvegetated Open Water Coastal Wetlands Converted to Vegetated Coastal Wetlands (MMT C) ............................................................................................................... 6-91 Table 6-60: Approach 1 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for C Stock Changes occurring within Unvegetated Open Water Coastal Wetlands Converted to Vegetated Coastal Wetlands (MMT CO 2 Eq. and Percent) .............. 6-92 Table 6-61: Net N 2O Flux from Aquaculture in Coastal Wetlands (MMT CO 2 Eq.) ............................................. 6-93 Table 6-62: Net N 2O Flux from Aquaculture in Coastal Wetlands (kt N 2O) .......................................................... 6-93 Table 6-63: Approach 1 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for N 2O Emissions for Aquaculture Production in Coastal Wetlands (MMT CO 2 Eq. and Percent) ...................................................................................................... 6-94 Table 6-64: Net CO 2 Flux from Soil C Stock Changes in Land Converted to Vegetated Coastal Wetlands (MMT CO 2 Eq.) .................................................................................................................................................................. 6-95 Table 6-65: Net CO 2 Flux from Soil C Stock Changes in Land Converted to Vegetated Coastal Wetlands (MMT C) ................................................................................................................................................................................. 6-95 Table 6-66: Net CH 4 Flux in Land Converted to Vegetated Coastal Wetlands (MMT CO 2 Eq.) ........................... 6-96 Table 6-67: Net CH 4 Flux from Soil C Stock Changes in Land Converted to Vegetated Coastal Wetlands (kt CH 4) 6- 96 Table 6-68: Approach 1 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for Net CO 2 Flux Changes occurring within Land Converted to Vegetated Coastal Wetlands (MMT CO 2 Eq. and Percent) ............................................................... 6-97 Table 6-69: Approach 1 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CH 4 Emissions occurring within Land Converted to Vegetated Coastal Wetlands (MMT CO 2 Eq. and Percent) ..................................................................................... 6-98 Table 6-70: Net CO 2 Flux from Soil C Stock Changes in Settlements Remaining Settlements (MMT CO 2 Eq.) ... 6-99 Table 6-71: Net CO 2 Flux from Soil C Stock Changes in Settlements Remaining Settlements (MMT C) ............. 6-99 Table 6-72: Thousands of Hectares of Drained Organic Soils in Settlements Remaining Settlements ................. 6-100 Table 6-73: Uncertainty Estimates for CO 2 Emissions from Drained Organic Soils in Settlements Remaining Settlements (MMT CO 2 Eq. and Percent) .............................................................................................................. 6-100 Table 6-74: Net C Flux from Urban Trees (MMT CO 2 Eq. and MMT C) ........................................................... 6-102 Table 6-75: Annual C Sequestration (Metric Tons C/Year), Tree Cover (Percent), and Annual C Sequestration per Area of Tree Cover (kg C/m 2 -yr) for 50 states plus the District of Columbia (2015) ........................................... 6-104 Table 6-76: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for Net C Flux from Changes in C Stocks in Urban Trees (MMT CO 2 Eq. and Percent) ....................................................................................................................... 6-105 Table 6-77: N 2O Fluxes from Soils in Settlements Remaining Settlements (MMT CO 2 Eq. and kt N 2O) ............ 6-107 Table 6-78: Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates of N 2O Emissions from Soils in Settlements Remaining Settlements (MMT CO 2 Eq. and Percent) ................................................................................................................................. 6-108 Table 6-79: Net Changes in Yard Trimming and Food Scrap Carbon Stocks in Landfills (MMT CO 2 Eq.) ....... 6-110 Table 6-80: Net Changes in Yard Trimming and Food Scrap Carbon Stocks in Landfills (MMT C) .................. 6-110 xvii

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 Table 6-81: Moisture Contents, C Storage Factors (Proportions of Initial C Sequestered), Initial C Contents, and Decay Rates for Yard Trimmings and Food Scraps in Landfills ........................................................................... 6-112 Table 6-82: C Stocks in Yard Trimmings and Food Scraps in Landfills (MMT C) ............................................. 6-113 Table 6-83: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CO 2 Flux from Yard Trimmings and Food Scraps in Landfills (MMT CO 2 Eq. and Percent) .................................................................................................................. 6-113 Table 6-84: Net CO 2 Flux from Soil, Dead Organic Matter and Biomass C Stock Changes for Land Converted to Settlements (MMT CO 2 Eq.) .................................................................................................................................. 6-115 Table 6-85: Net CO 2 Flux from Soil, Dead Organic Matter and Biomass C Stock Changes for Land Converted to Settlements (MMT C) ............................................................................................................................................ 6-115 Table 6-86: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for C Stock Changes occurring within Land Converted to Settlements (MMT CO 2 Eq. and Percent) .......................................................................................................... 6-118 Table 7-1: Emissions from Waste (MMT CO 2 Eq.) ................................................................................................. 7-1 Table 7-2: Emissions from Waste (kt) ...................................................................................................................... 7-2 Table 7-3: CH 4 Emissions from Landfills (MMT CO 2 Eq.) ..................................................................................... 7-4 Table 7-4: CH 4 Emissions from Landfills (kt).......................................................................................................... 7-5 Table 7-5: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CH 4 Emissions from Landfills (MMT CO 2 Eq. and Percent) .................................................................................................................................................................... 7-10 Table 7-6: Materials Discarded a in the Municipal Waste Stream by Waste Type from 1990 to 2014 (Percent).... 7-16 Table 7-7: CH 4 and N 2O Emissions from Domestic and Industrial Wastewater Treatment (MMT CO 2 Eq.)........ 7-18 Table 7-8: CH 4 and N 2O Emissions from Domestic and Industrial Wastewater Treatment (kt) ............................ 7-19 Table 7-9: U.S. Population (Millions) and Domestic Wastewater BOD 5 Produced (kt) ........................................ 7-21 Table 7-10: Domestic Wastewater CH 4 Emissions from Septic and Centralized Systems (2015, MMT CO 2 Eq. and Percent) .................................................................................................................................................................... 7-22 Table 7-11: Industrial Wastewater CH 4 Emissions by Sector (2015, MMT CO 2 Eq. and Percent) ........................ 7-22 Table 7-12: U.S. Pulp and Paper, Meat, Poultry, Vegetables, Fruits and Juices, Ethanol, and Petroleum Refining Production (MMT) .................................................................................................................................................. 7-22 Table 7-13: Variables Used to Calculate Percent Wastewater Treated Anaerobically by Industry (Percent) ........ 7-24 Table 7-14: Wastewater Flow (m 3 /ton) and BOD Production (g/L) for U.S. Vegetables, Fruits, and Juices Production................................................................................................................................................................ 7-25 Table 7-15: U.S. Population (Millions), Population Served by Biological Denitrification (Millions), Fraction of Population Served by Wastewater Treatment (Percent), Available Protein (kg/Person-Year), Protein Consumed (kg/Person-Year), and Nitrogen Removed with Sludge (kt-N/Year)....................................................................... 7-29 Table 7-16: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CH 4 Emissions from Wastewater Treatment (MMT CO 2 Eq. and Percent) ............................................................................................................................................... 7-30 Table 7-17: CH 4 and N 2O Emissions from Composting (MMT CO 2 Eq.) ............................................................. 7-33 Table 7-18: CH 4 and N 2O Emissions from Composting (kt).................................................................................. 7-33 Table 7-19: U.S. Waste Composted (kt)................................................................................................................. 7-34 Table 7-20: Approach 1 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for Emissions from Composting (MMT CO 2 Eq. and Percent) .................................................................................................................................................................... 7-34 Table 7-21: Emissions of NO x, CO, and NMVOC from Waste (kt)....................................................................... 7-35 Table 9-1: Revisions to U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions (MMT CO 2 Eq.) .............................................................. 9-4 xviii DRAFT Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2015

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    N2O Emissions from Adipic Acid Prod

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    a Emission estimates reported in th

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    1 3.10. Methodology for Estimating

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    1 2 Figure 2-2: Annual Percent Chan

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 gas for electricity

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    a Emissions from Wood Biomass and E

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    Electrical Transmission and Distrib

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    Wetlands (4.0) (5.3) (4.1) (4.2) (4

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    CH4 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 Pet

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    1 Table 2-7: Emissions from Agricul

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    1 2 Table 2-8: U.S. Greenhouse Gas

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    1 2 3 4 Overall, in 2015, waste act

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    Cement Production 33.3 45.9 32.0 35

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    Total 1,862.5 2,441.6 2,197.3 2,059

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    Total Emissions 6,366.7 7,315.6 6,7

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    N2O 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 Oth

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 atmospheric sink fo

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    International Bunker Fuels a 0.2 0.

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    1 Table 3-4: CO2, CH4, and N2O Emis

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    1 Figure 3-3: 2015 U.S. Energy Cons

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    1 2 Figure 3-6: Annual Deviations f

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    U.S. Territories a 28.0 50.1 41.7 4

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    Fuel Oil 27.2 45.6 36.7 37.6 37.1 3

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    1 Figure 3-9: Electricity Generatio

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    1 Figure 3-11: Industrial Productio

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    1 Figure 3-13: Sales of New Passeng

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    Medium- and Heavy-Duty 0.5 0.9 0.7

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    1 2 Figure 3-15: U.S. Energy Consum

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    Coal b 1,653.7 1,596.3 1,809.1 -3%

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    1 2 Table 3-17: Approach 2 Quantita

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    1 Table 3-20: Adjusted Consumption

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    1 2 3 4 percent above the 2014 emis

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    Gas/Waste Product 1990 2005 2011 20

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 waste

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    1 2 3 4 5 due to the higher CH 4 co

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    Activity 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 approach over the t

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    Previous Estimated Emissions from S

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    Emissions (w/o Plunger) (MT) 372,28

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    Reciprocating Compressors 64,413 64

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    1 Table 3-72: Woody Biomass Consump

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    CO2 206.8 189.9 172.9 169.6 171.5 1

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    SF6 1 1 + + + + + Electrical Transm

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    2012 13.8 13,785 2013 14.0 14,028 2

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    1 2 3 MMT CO 2 Eq. (10,828 kt) (see

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 consumed

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    1 Table 4-19: CO2 Emissions from Am

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    1 Table 4-24: Urea Production, Urea

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    2012 10.5 35 2013 10.7 36 2014 10.9

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    2015 4.3 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

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    1 2 Table 4-31: Approach 2 Quantita

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Production data f

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The activity data

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The results of th

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    2013 4.1 0.3 2014 5.0 0.3 1 2 3 4 5

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    1 2 Table 4-70: Production and Cons

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    1 Table 4-89: CO2 Emissions from Zi

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 4.23 Substi

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    Graphic Arts + 0 0 0 0 0 0 Non-Indu

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    Note that the relative uncertainty

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    + Does not exceed 0.05 MMT CO2 Eq.

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 low in many parts

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    1 Table 5-21: Emissions from Liming

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    Land Converted to Forest Land (92.0

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    1 2 Table 6-7: Land Use and Land-Us

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    Note: Forest C stocks do not includ

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    1 2 3 Total Aboveground Biomass Flu

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    Belowground Live Biomass 2.3 2.0 2.

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    1 2 Table 6-34: Net CO2 Flux from S

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    1 2 3 4 5 above the 2015 stock chan

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    Other Lands Converted Grassland Min

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    On-site 70 71 60 53 50 50 49 N2O (O

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    1 2 3 4 result in cessation of emis

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    New Mexico 70,608 52,250 12.0 0.263

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    C Storage Factor, Proportion of Ini

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    1 Table 7-2: Emissions from Waste (

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    2013 321 10,536 2014 323 10,613 201

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    1 2 Table 7-16: Approach 2 Quantita

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 EF i = emissio

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    a Miscellaneous includes TSDFs (Tre

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    Enteric Fermentation NC NC + NC + (

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