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DRAFT Inventory of U.S Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

2017_complete_report

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 information, see pages 5 to 10, and 12 to 16 of the 2017 Processing Memo. Linear interpolation was used to create time series consistency between earlier years’ emission factors and activity factors (1990 through 1992) that generally rely on data from GRI/EPA 1996 and the GHGRP emission and activity factors for recent years. However, the plant fugitive emission factors in previous Inventories included plant fugitives but not compressor fugitives, and separate emission factors were applied for compressor emissions (including compressor fugitive and vented sources). There is also some overlap between those categories and the flare and dehydrator categories. Because of these differences, the two sets of emission factors (GRI/EPA and factors calculated from GHGRP) cannot be directly compared. For the purpose of interpolating for the time series, in this public review draft of the Inventory, the EPA calculated plant-level emission factors for processing stations that include plant and compressor fugitive sources, compressor vented sources, flares, and dehydrators. The previous Inventory emission factors were used for 1990 through 1992; emission factors from GHGRP were used for 2011 through 2015. Emission factors for 1993 through 2010 were developed through linear interpolation. In this public review draft of the Inventory, the EPA incorporated GHGRP average values of reciprocating and centrifugal compressors per processing plant, using year 2015 data. These values were applied for 2011 through 2015. GHGRP data for 2011 through 2015 are used to develop year-specific splits between centrifugal compressor seal types (wet versus dry seals). GHGRP year 2015 data were used to develop emission factors on a per-plant basis for fugitives, flares, and dehydrators, and a per-compressor basis for compressors. Emission factors for dry seal centrifugal compressors were developed using GHGRP data supplemented with the previous Inventory emission factor for dry seal emissions. In order to create time series consistency between earlier years’ per plant compressor count estimates (1990 to 1992) and the most recent years’ per plant compressor count estimates (2011 to 2015) that were calculated using GHGRP data, compressor counts for the years 1993 through 2010 were calculated using linear interpolation between the data endpoints of 1992 and 2011. The overall impact of using revised emissions data and activity data from GHGRP is a decrease in emissions for fugitives and compressors. For the year 2014, the calculated CH 4 emissions decrease due to use of revised emission factors and activity data for processing plant fugitives, compressor venting, flares, and dehydrators is approximately 17.2 MMT CO 2 Eq. Gas Engines and Turbines In the public review draft, the estimates for gas engines and gas turbines were updated to incorporate data from GHGRP. For more information, please see pages 10 to 11 of the 2017 Processing Memo. GHGRP data were used to develop an updated value for million horsepower-hours (MMHPhr) per plant for both gas engines and gas turbines. These values were applied to plant counts for years 2011 to 2015. The previous estimates of MMHPhr per plant were retained for 1990 through 1992, and values for 1993 to 2010 were developed by linear interpolation between the 1992 and 2011 values. EPA retained the previous Inventory emission factor and applied it for all years of the time series. The recalculation for gas engines resulted in an average increase in the estimate of 24,496 MT, or 16 percent over the time series. The recalculation for gas turbines resulted in an average decrease in the estimate of 395 MT, or 8 percent over the time series. Blowdown Venting In the public review draft, the estimate for blowdown venting was updated to incorporate data from GHGRP. For more information, please see pages 11 to 12 of the 2017 Processing Memo. A per-plant emission factor was developed from 2015 GHGRP data, and applied to plant counts for years 2011 through 2015. The previous emission factors were retained for 1990 through 1992, and values for 1993 through 2010 were developed by linear interpolation between the 1992 and 2011 values. The recalculation resulted in an average decrease in the estimate of 7,769 MT or 17 percent over the time series. Table 3-59: CH4 Emissions from Processing Plants (Metric Tons CH4) Activity Data/Emissions 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Plant Total Emissions (MT) 633,867 245,798 143,187 143,341 153,160 157,063 156,252 (Overlapping Sources) Plant Fugitives (MT) 14,625 14,625 15,687 16,097 16,097 3-82 DRAFT Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2015

Reciprocating Compressors 64,413 64,413 69,089 70,896 70,896 (MT) Centrifugal Compressors (Wet 22,061 22,387 22,767 23,143 21,428 Seals) (MT) Centrifugal Compressors (Dry 6,959 6,787 7,936 8,260 9,165 Seals) (MT) Flares (MT) 19,776 19,776 21,212 21,767 21,767 Dehydrators (MT) 15,353 15,353 16,468 16,899 16,899 Gas Engines (MT) 137,102 187,639 211,002 211,002 226,322 232,241 232,241 Gas Turbines (MT) 3,861 3,875 3,883 3,883 4,165 4,274 4,274 AGR Vents (MT) 16,494 12,267 13,134 13,134 14,088 14,456 14,456 Pneumatic Controllers (MT) 2,414 1,796 1,923 1,923 2,062 2,116 2,116 Blowdowns/Venting (MT) 59,507 34,586 32,251 32,251 34,593 35,497 35,497 Total Processing Emissions 853,245 485,962 405,380 405,534 434,390 445,648 444,837 (MT) NA – Not Applicable 1 2 3 Table 3-60: Previous (last year’s) 1990-2014 Inventory Estimates for Processing Segment Emissions (Metric Tons CH4) Activity Data/Emissions 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Previous Plant Total Emissions (Overlapping Sources) (MT) 633,867 621,625 761,618 793,031 800,622 843,513 NA Previous Plants (MT) 42,295 31,457 33,681 33,681 36,126 37,126 NA Previous Recip. Compressors (MT) 324,939 327,869 420,871 442,077 445,551 473,829 NA Previous Centrifugal Compressors (Wet Seals) (MT) 240,293 229,237 236,115 237,683 237,940 240,031 NA Previous Centrifugal Compressors (Dry Seals) (MT) - 6,483 36,835 43,755 44,889 54,117 NA Previous Kimray Pumps (MT) 3,678 3,712 4,764 5,005 5,044 5,364 NA Previous Dehydrator Vents (MT) 22,662 22,866 29,352 30,831 31,073 33,045 NA Previous Gas Engines (MT) 137,102 138,338 177,578 186,526 187,991 199,923 NA Previous Gas Turbines (MT) 3,861 3,896 5,001 5,253 5,294 5,630 NA Previous AGR Vents (MT) 16,494 12,267 13,134 13,134 14,088 14,478 NA Previous Pneumatic Controllers (MT) 2,414 1,796 1,923 1,923 2,062 2,119 NA Previous Blowdowns/Venting (MT) 59,507 44,259 47,387 47,387 50,827 52,235 NA Previous-Total Potential Emissions (MT) 853,245 822,180 1,006,640 1,047,252 1,060,884 1,117,897 NA Previous-Gas STAR Reductions (MT) (1,488) (155,501) (140,368) (140,449) (140,744) (140,797) NA Previous-Total Net Emissions (MT) 851,757 666,679 866,272 906,804 920,141 977,100 NA NA – Not Applicable 4 5 6 7 Gas STAR Reductions in the Processing Segment The EPA’s approach for revising the Inventory methodology to incorporate GHGRP data in the processing segment resulted in net emissions being directly calculated for all sources in each year of the time series. This obviated the need to apply Gas STAR reductions data for these sources. EPA has removed the Gas STAR reductions for the Energy 3-83

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    Cement Production 33.3 45.9 32.0 35

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    Total 1,862.5 2,441.6 2,197.3 2,059

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    Total Emissions 6,366.7 7,315.6 6,7

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    New Mexico 70,608 52,250 12.0 0.263

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    C Storage Factor, Proportion of Ini

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    1 Table 7-2: Emissions from Waste (

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Table 7-6 pres

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    2013 321 10,536 2014 323 10,613 201

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 %Plants a %Plants

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    1 2 Table 7-16: Approach 2 Quantita

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 EF i = emissio

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    a Miscellaneous includes TSDFs (Tre

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    Enteric Fermentation NC NC + NC + (

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