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DRAFT Inventory of U.S Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

2017_complete_report

CO 125,640 64,985 44,088

CO 125,640 64,985 44,088 42,164 40,239 38,315 36,348 Mobile Fossil Fuel Combustion 119,360 58,615 38,305 36,153 34,000 31,848 29,881 Stationary Fossil Fuel Combustion 5,000 4,648 4,170 4,027 3,884 3,741 3,741 Waste Combustion 978 1,403 1,003 1,318 1,632 1,947 1,947 Oil and Gas Activities 302 318 610 666 723 780 780 International Bunker Fuels a 103 133 137 133 129 135 141 NMVOCs 12,620 7,191 7,759 7,558 7,357 7,154 6,867 Mobile Fossil Fuel Combustion 10,932 5,724 4,562 4,243 3,924 3,605 3,318 Oil and Gas Activities 554 510 2,517 2,651 2,786 2,921 2,921 Stationary Fossil Fuel Combustion 912 716 599 569 539 507 507 Waste Combustion 222 241 81 94 108 121 121 International Bunker Fuels a 57 54 51 46 41 42 47 a These values are presented for informational purposes only and are not included in totals. Note: Totals may not sum due to independent rounding. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Methodology Emission estimates for 1990 through 2015 were obtained from data published on the National Emission Inventory (NEI) Air Pollutant Emission Trends web site (EPA 2016), and disaggregated based on EPA (2003). Emission estimates for 2012 and 2013 for non-electric generating units (EGU) and non-mobile sources are held constant from 2011 in EPA (2016). Emissions were calculated either for individual categories or for many categories combined, using basic activity data (e.g., the amount of raw material processed) as an indicator of emissions. National activity data were collected for individual applications from various agencies. Activity data were used in conjunction with emission factors, which together relate the quantity of emissions to the activity. Emission factors are generally available from the EPA’s Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, AP-42 (EPA 1997). The EPA currently derives the overall emission control efficiency of a source category from a variety of information sources, including published reports, the 1985 National Acid Precipitation and Assessment Program emissions inventory, and other EPA databases. Uncertainty and Time-Series Consistency Uncertainties in these estimates are partly due to the accuracy of the emission factors used and accurate estimates of activity data. A quantitative uncertainty analysis was not performed. Methodological recalculations were applied to the entire time-series to ensure time-series consistency from 1990 through 2015. Details on the emission trends through time are described in more detail in the Methodology section, above. 3.9 International Bunker Fuels (IPCC Source Category 1: Memo Items) Emissions resulting from the combustion of fuels used for international transport activities, termed international bunker fuels under the UNFCCC, are not included in national emission totals, but are reported separately based upon location of fuel sales. The decision to report emissions from international bunker fuels separately, instead of allocating them to a particular country, was made by the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee in establishing 3-86 DRAFT Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2015

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 the Framework Convention on Climate Change. 91 These decisions are reflected in the IPCC methodological guidance, including IPCC (2006), in which countries are requested to report emissions from ships or aircraft that depart from their ports with fuel purchased within national boundaries and are engaged in international transport separately from national totals (IPCC 2006). 92 Two transport modes are addressed under the IPCC definition of international bunker fuels: aviation and marine. 93 Greenhouse gases emitted from the combustion of international bunker fuels, like other fossil fuels, include CO 2, CH 4 and N 2O for marine transport modes, and CO 2 and N 2O for aviation transport modes. Emissions from ground transport activities—by road vehicles and trains—even when crossing international borders are allocated to the country where the fuel was loaded into the vehicle and, therefore, are not counted as bunker fuel emissions. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines distinguish between different modes of air traffic. Civil aviation comprises aircraft used for the commercial transport of passengers and freight, military aviation comprises aircraft under the control of national armed forces, and general aviation applies to recreational and small corporate aircraft. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines further define international bunker fuel use from civil aviation as the fuel combusted for civil (e.g., commercial) aviation purposes by aircraft arriving or departing on international flight segments. However, as mentioned above, and in keeping with the 2006 IPCC Guidelines, only the fuel purchased in the United States and used by aircraft taking-off (i.e., departing) from the United States are reported here. The standard fuel used for civil aviation is kerosene-type jet fuel, while the typical fuel used for general aviation is aviation gasoline. 94 Emissions of CO 2 from aircraft are essentially a function of fuel use. Nitrous oxide emissions also depend upon engine characteristics, flight conditions, and flight phase (i.e., take-off, climb, cruise, decent, and landing). Recent data suggest that little or no CH 4 is emitted by modern engines (Anderson et al. 2011), and as a result, CH 4 emissions from this category are considered zero. In jet engines, N 2O is primarily produced by the oxidation of atmospheric nitrogen, and the majority of emissions occur during the cruise phase. International marine bunkers comprise emissions from fuels burned by ocean-going ships of all flags that are engaged in international transport. Ocean-going ships are generally classified as cargo and passenger carrying, military (i.e., U.S. Navy), fishing, and miscellaneous support ships (e.g., tugboats). For the purpose of estimating greenhouse gas emissions, international bunker fuels are solely related to cargo and passenger carrying vessels, which is the largest of the four categories, and military vessels. Two main types of fuels are used on sea-going vessels: distillate diesel fuel and residual fuel oil. Carbon dioxide is the primary greenhouse gas emitted from marine shipping. Overall, aggregate greenhouse gas emissions in 2015 from the combustion of international bunker fuels from both aviation and marine activities were 111.8 MMT CO 2 Eq., or 7.0 percent above emissions in 1990 (see Table 3-63 and Table 3-64). Emissions from international flights and international shipping voyages departing from the United States have increased by 88.8 percent and decreased by 40.6 percent, respectively, since 1990. The majority of these emissions were in the form of CO 2; however, small amounts of CH 4 (from marine transport modes) and N 2O were also emitted. Table 3-63: CO2, CH4, and N2O Emissions from International Bunker Fuels (MMT CO2 Eq.) Gas/Mode 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 CO2 103.5 113.1 111.7 105.8 99.8 103.2 110.8 Aviation 38.0 60.1 64.8 64.5 65.7 69.4 71.8 Commercial 30.0 55.6 61.7 61.4 62.8 66.3 68.6 Military 8.1 4.5 3.1 3.1 2.9 3.1 3.2 Marine 65.4 53.0 46.9 41.3 34.1 33.8 38.9 CH4 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 91 See report of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a Framework Convention on Climate Change on the work of its ninth session, held at Geneva from 7 to 18 February 1994 (A/AC.237/55, annex I, para. 1c). 92 Note that the definition of international bunker fuels used by the UNFCCC differs from that used by the International Civil Aviation Organization. 93 Most emission related international aviation and marine regulations are under the rubric of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) or the International Maritime Organization (IMO), which develop international codes, recommendations, and conventions, such as the International Convention of the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL). 94 Naphtha-type jet fuel was used in the past by the military in turbojet and turboprop aircraft engines. Energy 3-87

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    Cement Production 33.3 45.9 32.0 35

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    Total 1,862.5 2,441.6 2,197.3 2,059

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    Total Emissions 6,366.7 7,315.6 6,7

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    N2O 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 Oth

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    U.S. Territories a 28.0 50.1 41.7 4

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    Fuel Oil 27.2 45.6 36.7 37.6 37.1 3

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    Coal b 1,653.7 1,596.3 1,809.1 -3%

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    2013 321 10,536 2014 323 10,613 201

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