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DRAFT Inventory of U.S Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

2017_complete_report

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 estimates for these source categories using the IPCC Tier 2 approach. As the process continues, the type and the characteristics of the actual probability density functions underlying the input variables are identified and better characterized (resulting in development of more reliable inputs for the model, including accurate characterization of correlation between variables), based primarily on expert judgment. Accordingly, the quantitative uncertainty estimates reported in this section should be considered illustrative and as iterations of ongoing efforts to produce accurate uncertainty estimates. The correlation among data used for estimating emissions for different sources can influence the uncertainty analysis of each individual source. While the uncertainty analysis recognizes very significant connections among sources, a more comprehensive approach that accounts for all linkages will be identified as the uncertainty analysis moves forward. Box 4-1: Industrial Processes Data from EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program On October 30, 2009, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a rule requiring annual reporting of greenhouse gas data from large greenhouse gas emissions sources in the United States. Implementation of the rule, codified at 40 CFR part 98, is referred to as EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP). The rule applies to direct greenhouse gas emitters, fossil fuel suppliers, industrial gas suppliers, and facilities that inject CO 2 underground for sequestration or other reasons and requires reporting by sources or suppliers in 41 industrial categories. Annual reporting is at the facility level, except for certain suppliers of fossil fuels and industrial greenhouse gases. In general, the threshold for reporting is 25,000 metric tons or more of CO 2 Eq. per year, but reporting is required for all facilities in some industries. Calendar year 2010 was the first year for which data were reported for facilities subject to 40 CFR part 98, though some source categories first reported data for calendar year 2011. EPA’s GHGRP dataset and the data presented in this Inventory are complementary. EPA presents the data collected by EPA’s GHGRP through a data publication tool (ghgdata.epa.gov) that allows data to be viewed in several formats, including maps, tables, charts, and graphs for individual facilities or groups of facilities. Most methodologies used in EPA’s GHGRP are consistent with IPCC, though for EPA’s GHGRP, facilities collect detailed information specific to their operations according to detailed measurement standards. This may differ from the more aggregated data collected for the Inventory to estimate total, national U.S. emissions. It should be noted that the definitions for source categories in EPA’s GHGRP may differ from those used in this Inventory in meeting the UNFCCC reporting guidelines (IPCC 2011). In line with the UNFCCC reporting guidelines, the Inventory is a comprehensive accounting of all emissions from source categories identified in the IPCC (2006) guidelines. Further information on the reporting categorizations in EPA’s GHGRP and specific data caveats associated with monitoring methods in EPA’s GHGRP has been provided on the EPA’s GHGRP website. For certain source categories in this Inventory (e.g., nitric acid production and petrochemical production), EPA has also integrated data values that have been calculated by aggregating EPA’s GHGRP data that are considered confidential business information (CBI) at the facility level. EPA, with industry engagement, has put forth criteria to confirm that a given data aggregation shields underlying CBI from public disclosure. EPA is publishing only data values that meet these aggregation criteria. 2 Specific uses of aggregated facility-level data are described in the respective methodological sections. For other source categories in this chapter, as indicated in the respective planned improvements sections, EPA is continuing to analyze how facility-level GHGRP data may be used to improve the national estimates presented in this Inventory, giving particular consideration to ensuring time series consistency and completeness. As stated previously in the Introduction chapter, this year EPA has integrated GHGRP information for various Industrial Processes and Product Use categories 3 and also identified places where EPA plans to integrate additional GHGRP data in additional categories 4 (see those categories Planned Improvement sections for details). The GHGRP dataset is a particularly important annual resource and will continue to be important for improving emissions estimates from Industrial Process and Product Use in future Inventory reports. 2 U.S. EPA Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. Developments on Publication of Aggregated Greenhouse Gas Data, November 25, 2014. See . 3 Adipic Acid Production, Aluminum Production, Carbon Dioxide Consumption, Electrical Transmission and Distribution, HCFC-22 Production, Lime Production, Magnesium Production and Processing, ODS Substitutes, Nitric Acid Production, Petrochemical Production, and Semiconductor Manufacture. 4 Ammonia Production, Cement Production, Glass Production and Other fluorinated gas production. 4-6 DRAFT Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2015

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 4.1 Cement Production (IPCC Source Category 2A1) Cement production is an energy- and raw material-intensive process that results in the generation of carbon dioxide (CO 2) from both the energy consumed in making the cement and the chemical process itself. Emissions from fuels consumed for energy purposes during the production of cement are accounted for in the Energy chapter. During the cement production process, calcium carbonate (CaCO 3) is heated in a cement kiln at a temperature of about 1,450 degrees Celsius (2,700 degrees Fahrenheit) to form lime (i.e., calcium oxide or CaO) and CO 2 in a process known as calcination or calcining. The quantity of CO 2 emitted during cement production is directly proportional to the lime content of the clinker. During calcination, each mole of limestone (CaCO 3) heated in the clinker kiln forms one mole of lime (CaO) and one mole of CO 2: CaCO 3 + heat → CaO + CO 2 Next, the lime is combined with silica-containing materials to produce clinker (an intermediate product), with the earlier byproduct CO 2 being released to the atmosphere. The clinker is then allowed to cool, mixed with a small amount of gypsum and potentially other materials (e.g., slag, etc.), and used to make Portland cement. 5 Carbon dioxide emitted from the chemical process of cement production is the second largest source of industrial CO 2 emissions in the United States. Cement is produced in 34 states and Puerto Rico. Texas, California, Missouri, Florida, and Alabama were the five leading cement-producing states in 2015 and accounted for nearly 50 percent of total U.S. production (USGS 2016b). Clinker production in 2015 increased approximately 2 percent from 2014 levels as cement sales continued to increase in 2015, but at a more moderate rate compared to 2014. In 2015, U.S. clinker production totaled 76,555 kilotons (USGS 2016a). The resulting CO 2 emissions were estimated to be 39.6 MMT CO 2 Eq. (39,587 kt) (see Table 4-3). Table 4-3: CO2 Emissions from Cement Production (MMT CO2 Eq. and kt) Year MMT CO2 Eq. kt 1990 33.3 33,278 2005 45.9 45,910 2011 32.0 32,010 2012 35.1 35,053 2013 36.1 36,145 2014 38.8 38,789 2015 39.6 39,587 24 25 26 27 28 Greenhouse gas emissions from cement production increased every year from 1991 through 2006 (with the exception of a slight decrease in 1997), but decreased in the following years until 2009. Emissions from cement production were at their lowest levels in 2009 (2009 emissions are approximately 28 percent lower than 2008 emissions and 12 percent lower than 1990). Since 2010, emissions have increased by roughly 27 percent. In 2015, emissions from cement production increased by 2 percent from 2014 levels. 5 Approximately three percent of total clinker production is used to produce masonry cement, which is produced using plasticizers (e.g., ground limestone, lime, etc.) and Portland cement (USGS 2011). Carbon dioxide emissions that result from the production of lime used to create masonry cement are included in the Lime Manufacture source category. Industrial Processes and Product Use 4-7

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    Total 1,862.5 2,441.6 2,197.3 2,059

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    2013 321 10,536 2014 323 10,613 201

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    a Miscellaneous includes TSDFs (Tre

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    Enteric Fermentation NC NC + NC + (

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