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DRAFT Inventory of U.S Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

2017_complete_report

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 manufacturing, there are other carbonates that are also consumed for glass manufacturing, although in smaller quantities. EPA has initiated review of activity data on carbonate consumption, by type by the glass industry from EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP) reported annually since 2010. EPA has initiated review of this activity data and is hopes to finalize assessment for future integration of data reported under EPA’s GHGRP this spring to improve the completeness of emission estimates and facilitate category-specific QC for the Glass Production source category. EPA’s GHGRP has an emission threshold for reporting, so the assessment will consider the completeness of carbonate consumption data for glass production in the United States. Particular attention will also be made to also ensuring time series consistency of the emissions estimates presented in future Inventory reports, consistent with IPCC and UNFCCC guidelines. This is required as the facility-level reporting data from EPA’s GHGRP, with the program's initial requirements for reporting of emissions in calendar year 2010, are not available for all inventory years (i.e., 1990 through 2009) as required for this Inventory. In implementing improvements and integration of data from EPA’s GHGRP, the latest guidance from the IPCC on the use of facility-level data in national inventories will be relied upon. 14 These planned improvements are ongoing and EPA hopes to also initiate research into other sources of activity data for carbonate consumption by the glass industry. 4.4 Other Process Uses of Carbonates (IPCC Source Category 2A4) Limestone (CaCO 3), dolomite (CaCO 3MgCO 3), 15 and other carbonates such as soda ash, magnesite, and siderite are basic materials used by a wide variety of industries, including construction, agriculture, chemical, metallurgy, glass production, and environmental pollution control. This section addresses only limestone and dolomite use. For industrial applications, carbonates such as limestone and dolomite are heated sufficiently enough to calcine the material and generate CO 2 as a byproduct. CaCO 3 → CaO + CO 2 MgCO 3 → MgO + CO 2 Examples of such applications include limestone used as a flux or purifier in metallurgical furnaces, as a sorbent in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems for utility and industrial plants, and as a raw material for the production of glass, lime, and cement. Emissions from limestone and dolomite used in other process sectors such as cement, lime, glass production, and iron and steel, are excluded from this section and reported under their respective source categories (e.g., Section 4.3, Glass Production). Emission from soda ash consumption is reported under respective categories (e.g., Glass Manufacturing (IPCC Source Category 2A3) and Soda Ash Production and Consumption (IPCC Source Category 2B7)). Emissions from fuels consumed for energy purposes during these processes are accounted for in the Energy chapter. Limestone is widely distributed throughout the world in deposits of varying sizes and degrees of purity. Large deposits of limestone occur in nearly every state in the United States, and significant quantities are extracted for industrial applications. In 2014, the leading limestone producing states are Texas, Missouri, Florida, Ohio, and Kentucky, which contribute 43 percent of the total U.S. output (USGS 1995a through 2015). Similarly, dolomite deposits are also widespread throughout the world. Dolomite deposits are found in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Europe, Africa, and Brazil. In the United States, the leading dolomite producing states are Illinois, Pennsylvania, and New York, which contribute 55 percent of the total 2014 U.S. output (USGS 1995a through 2015). In 2015, 22,322 kt of limestone and 3,244 kt of dolomite were consumed for these emissive applications, excluding glass manufacturing (Willett 2017). Usage of limestone and dolomite resulted in aggregate CO 2 emissions of 10.8 14 See . 15 Limestone and dolomite are collectively referred to as limestone by the industry, and intermediate varieties are seldom distinguished. 4-18 DRAFT Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2015

1 2 3 MMT CO 2 Eq. (10,828 kt) (see Table 4-14 and Table 4-15). While 2015 emissions have decreased 8 percent compared to 2014, overall emissions have increased 121 percent from 1990 through 2015. Table 4-14: CO2 Emissions from Other Process Uses of Carbonates (MMT CO2 Eq.) Other Year Flux Stone FGD Magnesium Production Miscellaneous Uses a Total 1990 2.6 1.4 0.1 0.8 4.9 2005 2.6 3.0 0.0 0.7 6.3 2011 1.5 5.4 0.0 2.4 9.3 2012 1.1 5.8 0.0 1.1 8.0 2013 2.3 6.3 0.0 1.8 10.4 2014 2.9 7.1 0.0 1.8 11.8 2015 3.0 7.3 0.0 0.5 10.8 a “Other miscellaneous uses” include chemical stone, mine dusting or acid water treatment, acid neutralization, and sugar refining. Note: Totals may not sum due to independent rounding. 4 Table 4-15: CO2 Emissions from Other Process Uses of Carbonates (kt) Other Year Flux Stone FGD Magnesium Production Miscellaneous Uses a Total 1990 2,592 1,432 64 819 4,907 2005 2,649 2,973 0 718 6,339 2011 1,467 5,420 0 2,449 9,335 2012 1,077 5,797 0 1,148 8,022 2013 2,307 6,309 0 1,798 10,414 2014 2,911 7,111 0 1,790 11,811 2015 3,031 7,335 0 462 10,828 a “Other miscellaneous uses” include chemical stone, mine dusting or acid water treatment, acid neutralization, and sugar refining. Note: Totals may not sum due to independent rounding. 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Methodology Carbon dioxide emissions were calculated based on the 2006 IPCC Guidelines Tier 2 method by multiplying the quantity of limestone or dolomite consumed by the emission factor for limestone or dolomite calcination, respectively, Table 2.1–limestone: 0.43971 metric ton CO 2/metric ton carbonate, and dolomite: 0.47732 metric ton CO 2/metric ton carbonate. 16 This methodology was used for flux stone, flue gas desulfurization systems, chemical stone, mine dusting or acid water treatment, acid neutralization, and sugar refining. Flux stone used during the production of iron and steel was deducted from the Other Process Uses of Carbonates source category estimate and attributed to the Iron and Steel Production source category estimate. Similarly, limestone and dolomite consumption for glass manufacturing, cement, and lime manufacturing are excluded from this category and attributed to their respective categories. Historically, the production of magnesium metal was the only other significant use of limestone and dolomite that produced CO 2 emissions. At the end of 2001, the sole magnesium production plant operating in the United States 16 2006 IPCC Guidelines, Volume 3: Chapter 2. Industrial Processes and Product Use 4-19

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    Total 1,862.5 2,441.6 2,197.3 2,059

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    1 2 Table 7-16: Approach 2 Quantita

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    Enteric Fermentation NC NC + NC + (

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Quality manual for the greenhouse gas inventory. Version 1.
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