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DRAFT Inventory of U.S Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

2017_complete_report

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Figure 6-4: Total Net Annual CO 2 Flux for Mineral Soils under Agricultural Management within States, 2015, Cropland Remaining Cropland ............................................................................................................................... 6-49 Figure 6-5: Total Net Annual CO 2 Flux for Organic Soils under Agricultural Management within States, 2015, Cropland Remaining Cropland ............................................................................................................................... 6-50 Figure 6-6: Total Net Annual CO 2 Flux for Mineral Soils under Agricultural Management within States, 2015, Grassland Remaining Grassland ............................................................................................................................. 6-64 Figure 6-7: Total Net Annual CO 2 Flux for Organic Soils under Agricultural Management within States, 2015, Grassland Remaining Grassland ............................................................................................................................. 6-64 Figure 7-1: 2015 Waste Chapter Greenhouse Gas Sources (MMT CO 2 Eq.) ........................................................... 7-1 Figure 7-2: Comparison of the Revised Inventory Methodology to EPA’s GHGRP Subpart HH Emissions ........ 7-13 Figure 7-3: Comparison of the 1990-2014 Inventory Methodology to the Revised Inventory Methodology ........ 7-13 Figure 7-4: Management of Municipal Solid Waste in the United States, 2014..................................................... 7-15 Figure 7-5: MSW Management Trends from 1990 to 2014 ................................................................................... 7-15 Figure 7-6: Percent of Recovered Degradable Materials from 1990 to 2014 (Percent).......................................... 7-16 Boxes Box ES-1: Methodological Approach for Estimating and Reporting U.S. Emissions and Sinks ........................... ES-1 Box ES-2: Use of Ambient Measurements Systems for Validation of Emission Inventories .............................. ES-12 Box ES-3: Recent Trends in Various U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions-Related Data ......................................... ES-25 Box ES-4: Recalculations of Inventory Estimates ................................................................................................ ES-28 Box 1-1: Methodological Approach for Estimating and Reporting U.S. Emissions and Sinks ................................ 1-2 Box 1-2: The IPCC Fifth Assessment Report and Global Warming Potentials ........................................................ 1-9 Box 1-3: IPCC Reference Approach ...................................................................................................................... 1-15 Box 2-1: Methodology for Aggregating Emissions by Economic Sector ............................................................... 2-31 Box 2-2: Recent Trends in Various U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions-Related Data .............................................. 2-32 Box 2-3: Sources and Effects of Sulfur Dioxide .................................................................................................... 2-35 Box 3-1: Methodological Approach for Estimating and Reporting U.S. Emissions and Sinks ................................ 3-3 Box 3-2: Energy Data from the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program ...................................................................... 3-4 Box 3-3: Weather and Non-Fossil Energy Effects on CO 2 from Fossil Fuel Combustion Trends ........................... 3-8 Box 3-4: Uses of Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program Data and Improvements in Reporting Emissions from Industrial Sector Fossil Fuel Combustion – TO BE UPDATED FOR FINAL INVENTORY REPORT ............... 3-28 Box 3-5: Carbon Intensity of U.S. Energy Consumption ........................................................................................ 3-30 Box 3-6: Reporting of Lubricants, Waxes, and Asphalt and Road Oil Product Use in Energy Sector ................... 3-47 Box 3-7: Carbon Dioxide Transport, Injection, and Geological Storage ................................................................ 3-70 Box 4-1: Industrial Processes Data from EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program ............................................. 4-6 Box 5-1: Tier 1 vs. Tier 3 Approach for Estimating N 2O Emissions ..................................................................... 5-26 Box 5-2: Comparison of the Tier 2 U.S. Inventory Approach and IPCC (2006) Default Approach ....................... 5-35 Box 5-3: Comparison of Tier 2 U.S. Inventory Approach and IPCC (2006) Default Approach ............................ 5-41 Box 6-1: Methodological Approach for Estimating and Reporting U.S. Emissions and Sinks ................................ 6-6 xxi

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Box 6-2: Preliminary Estimates of Land Use in U.S. Territories ............................................................................ 6-19 Box 6-3: CO 2 Emissions from Forest Fires ............................................................................................................ 6-26 Box 6-4: Preliminary Estimates of Historical Carbon Stock Change and Methane Emissions from Managed Land in Alaska (Represents Mean for Years 2000 to 2009) ................................................................................................. 6-33 Box 6-5: Tier 3 Approach for Soil C Stocks Compared to Tier 1 or 2 Approaches ............................................... 6-51 Box 6-6: Grassland Woody Biomass Analysis ....................................................................................................... 6-68 Box 7-1: Waste Data from the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program – TO BE UPDATED FOR FINAL INVENTORY REPORT ............................................................................................................................................ 7-2 Box 7-2: Nationwide Municipal Solid Waste Data Sources ................................................................................... 7-14 Box 7-3: Overview of Municipal Solid Waste Management .................................................................................. 7-15 Box 7-4: Description of a Modern, Managed Landfill ........................................................................................... 7-17 xxii DRAFT Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2015

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    a Emission estimates reported in th

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    1 3.10. Methodology for Estimating

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    1 2 Figure 2-2: Annual Percent Chan

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 gas for electricity

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    a Emissions from Wood Biomass and E

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    Electrical Transmission and Distrib

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    Wetlands (4.0) (5.3) (4.1) (4.2) (4

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    CH4 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 Pet

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    1 Table 2-7: Emissions from Agricul

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    1 2 Table 2-8: U.S. Greenhouse Gas

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    1 2 3 4 Overall, in 2015, waste act

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    Cement Production 33.3 45.9 32.0 35

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    Total 1,862.5 2,441.6 2,197.3 2,059

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    Total Emissions 6,366.7 7,315.6 6,7

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    N2O 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 Oth

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 atmospheric sink fo

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    International Bunker Fuels a 0.2 0.

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    1 Table 3-4: CO2, CH4, and N2O Emis

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    1 Figure 3-3: 2015 U.S. Energy Cons

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    1 2 Figure 3-6: Annual Deviations f

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    U.S. Territories a 28.0 50.1 41.7 4

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    Fuel Oil 27.2 45.6 36.7 37.6 37.1 3

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    1 Figure 3-9: Electricity Generatio

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    1 Figure 3-11: Industrial Productio

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    1 Figure 3-13: Sales of New Passeng

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    Medium- and Heavy-Duty 0.5 0.9 0.7

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    1 2 Figure 3-15: U.S. Energy Consum

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    Coal b 1,653.7 1,596.3 1,809.1 -3%

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    1 2 Table 3-17: Approach 2 Quantita

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    1 Table 3-20: Adjusted Consumption

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    1 2 3 4 percent above the 2014 emis

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    Gas/Waste Product 1990 2005 2011 20

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 waste

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    1 2 3 4 5 due to the higher CH 4 co

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    Activity 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 approach over the t

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    Previous Estimated Emissions from S

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    Emissions (w/o Plunger) (MT) 372,28

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    Reciprocating Compressors 64,413 64

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    1 Table 3-72: Woody Biomass Consump

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    CO2 206.8 189.9 172.9 169.6 171.5 1

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    SF6 1 1 + + + + + Electrical Transm

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    2012 13.8 13,785 2013 14.0 14,028 2

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    1 2 3 MMT CO 2 Eq. (10,828 kt) (see

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 consumed

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    1 Table 4-19: CO2 Emissions from Am

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    1 Table 4-24: Urea Production, Urea

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    2012 10.5 35 2013 10.7 36 2014 10.9

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    2015 4.3 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

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    1 2 Table 4-31: Approach 2 Quantita

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Production data f

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The results of th

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    2013 4.1 0.3 2014 5.0 0.3 1 2 3 4 5

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 discussion of CO 2

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    1 2 Table 4-56: Approach 2 Quantita

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 (i.e.

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    1 Table 4-67: Material Carbon Conte

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    1 2 Table 4-70: Production and Cons

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    1 Table 4-89: CO2 Emissions from Zi

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 4.23 Substi

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    Graphic Arts + 0 0 0 0 0 0 Non-Indu

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 5. Agriculture Ag

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    Note that the relative uncertainty

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    + Does not exceed 0.05 MMT CO2 Eq.

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 subsequently conv

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Agricultural soil

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 low in many parts

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 methodology te

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    1 Table 5-21: Emissions from Liming

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    1 2 Table 5-32: Key Assumptions for

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    Land Converted to Forest Land (92.0

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    1 2 Table 6-7: Land Use and Land-Us

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    1 2 Harvested wood products (HWP)

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    1 2 Figure 6-2: Changes in Forest A

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    Note: Forest C stocks do not includ

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    1 2 3 Total Aboveground Biomass Flu

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 C) from drainage and cu

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    Belowground Live Biomass 2.3 2.0 2.

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    1 2 Table 6-34: Net CO2 Flux from S

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    1 2 3 4 5 above the 2015 stock chan

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    CH4 0.1 0.3 0.8 0.6 0.2 0.4 0.4 N2O

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    Other Lands Converted Grassland Min

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    On-site 70 71 60 53 50 50 49 N2O (O

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    1 2 Table 6-51: Net CH4 Flux from V

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    1 2 3 4 result in cessation of emis

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    New Mexico 70,608 52,250 12.0 0.263

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    C Storage Factor, Proportion of Ini

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    1 Table 7-2: Emissions from Waste (

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Table 7-6 pres

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    2013 321 10,536 2014 323 10,613 201

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 %Plants a %Plants

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    1 2 Table 7-16: Approach 2 Quantita

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 EF i = emissio

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    a Miscellaneous includes TSDFs (Tre

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    Enteric Fermentation NC NC + NC + (

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