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DRAFT Inventory of U.S Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

2017_complete_report

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 27 26 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 The amount of urea consumed for agricultural purposes (used for calculating urea consumption for non-agricultural purposes) in the United States for the years 2011 through 2014 was revised based updated urea application estimates in a new AAPFCO report (2016) obtained from the Agriculture chapter (see Table 5-24). These updates resulted in a decrease in the emission estimate relative to the previous report of approximately 5 percent in 2013 and 66 percent in 2014, as previously described. As stated previously in the Methodology section, in previous inventory reports the quantity of urea fertilizer applied to agricultural lands was obtained directly from the Cropland Remaining Cropland section of the Land Use, Land Use Change, and Forestry chapter, and has been moved to the Agriculture chapter for this report. 4.7 Nitric Acid Production (IPCC Source Category 2B2) Nitrous oxide (N 2O) is emitted during the production of nitric acid (HNO 3), an inorganic compound used primarily to make synthetic commercial fertilizers. It is also a major component in the production of adipic acid—a feedstock for nylon—and explosives. Virtually all of the nitric acid produced in the United States is manufactured by the hightemperature catalytic oxidation of ammonia (EPA 1998). There are two different nitric acid production methods: weak nitric acid and high-strength nitric acid. The first method utilizes oxidation, condensation, and absorption to produce nitric acid at concentrations between 30 and 70 percent nitric acid. High-strength acid (90 percent or greater nitric acid) can be produced from dehydrating, bleaching, condensing, and absorption of the weak nitric acid. The basic process technology for producing nitric acid has not changed significantly over time. Most U.S. plants were built between 1960 and 2000. As of 2015, there were 34 active weak nitric acid production plants, including one high-strength nitric acid production plant in the United States (EPA 2010; EPA 2016). During this reaction, N 2O is formed as a byproduct and is released from reactor vents into the atmosphere. Emissions from fuels consumed for energy purposes during the production of nitric acid are accounted for in the Energy chapter. Nitric acid is made from the reaction of ammonia (NH 3) with oxygen (O 2) in two stages. The overall reaction is: 4NH 3 + 8O 2 → 4HNO 3 + 4H 2 O Currently, the nitric acid industry controls emissions of NO and NO 2 (i.e., NO x). As such, the industry in the United States uses a combination of non-selective catalytic reduction (NSCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technologies. In the process of destroying NO x, NSCR systems are also very effective at destroying N 2O. However, NSCR units are generally not preferred in modern plants because of high energy costs and associated high gas temperatures. NSCR systems were installed in nitric plants built between 1971 and 1977 with NSCRs installed at approximately one-third of the weak acid production plants. U.S. facilities are using both tertiary (i.e., NSCR) and secondary controls (i.e., alternate catalysts). Nitrous oxide emissions from this source were estimated to be 11.6 MMT CO 2 Eq. (39 kt of N 2O) in 2015 (see Table 4-26). Emissions from nitric acid production have decreased by 5 percent since 1990, with the trend in the time series closely tracking the changes in production. Emissions have decreased by 19 percent since 1997, the highest year of production in the time series. Table 4-26: N2O Emissions from Nitric Acid Production (MMT CO2 Eq. and kt N2O) Year MMT CO2 Eq. kt N2O 1990 12.1 41 2005 11.3 38 2011 10.9 37 4-28 DRAFT Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2015

2012 10.5 35 2013 10.7 36 2014 10.9 37 2015 11.6 39 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Methodology Emissions of N 2O were calculated using the estimation methods provided by the 2006 IPCC Guidelines and country specific methods from EPA’s GHGRP. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines Tier 2 method was used to estimate emissions from nitric acid production for 1990 through 2009, and a country-specific approach similar to the IPCC Tier 3 method was used to estimate N 2O emissions for 2010 through 2015. 2010 through 2015 Process N 2O emissions and nitric acid production data were obtained directly from EPA’s GHGRP for 2010 through 2015 by aggregating reported facility-level data (EPA 2016). In the United States, all nitric acid facilities producing weak nitric acid (30 to 70 percent in strength) are required to report annual greenhouse gas emissions data to EPA as per the requirements of its GHGRP. As of 2015, there were 34 facilities that reported to EPA, including the known single high-strength nitric acid production facility in the United States (EPA 2016). All nitric acid (weak acid) facilities are required to calculate process emissions using a site-specific emission factor developed through annual performance testing under typical operating conditions or by directly measuring N 2O emissions using monitoring equipment. 20 The high-strength nitric acid facility also reports N 2O emissions associated with weak acid production and this may capture all relevant emissions, pending additional further EPA research. More details on the calculation, monitoring and QA/QC methods applicable to Nitric Acid facilities can be found under Subpart V: Nitric Acid Production of the regulation, Part 98. 21 EPA verifies annual facility-level GHGRP reports through a multi-step process (e.g., combination of electronic checks and manual reviews) to identify potential errors and ensure that data submitted to EPA are accurate, complete, and consistent. 22 To calculate emissions from 2010 through 2015, EPA’s GHGRP nitric acid production data is utilized to develop weighted country specific emission factors used to calculate emissions estimates. Based on aggregated nitric acid production data by abatement type (i.e., with, without) provided by EPA’s GHGRP, the percent of production values and associated emissions of nitric acid with and without abatement technologies are calculated. These percentages are the basis for developing the country specific weighted emission factors which vary from year to year based on the amount of nitric acid production with and without abatement technologies. 1990 through 2009 Using EPA’s GHGRP data for 2010, 23 country-specific N 2O emission factors were calculated for nitric acid production with abatement and without abatement (i.e., controlled and uncontrolled emission factors), as previous stated. The following 2010 emission factors were derived for production with abatement and without abatement: 3.3 kg N 2O/metric ton HNO 3 produced at plants using abatement technologies (e.g., tertiary systems such as NSCR systems) and 5.99 kg N 2O/metric ton HNO 3 produced at plants not equipped with abatement technology. Countryspecific weighted emission factors were derived by weighting these emission factors by percent production with abatement and without abatement over time periods 1990 through 2008 and 2009. These weighted emission factors were used to estimate N 2O emissions from nitric acid production for years prior to the availability of EPA’s GHGRP 20 Facilities must use standard methods, either EPA Method 320 or ASTM D6348-03 and must follow associated QA/QC procedures consistent during these performance test consistent with category-specific QC of direct emission measurements. 21 See . 22 See . 23 National N2O process emissions, national production, and national share of nitric acid production with abatement and without abatement technology was aggregated from the GHGRP facility-level data for 2010 to 2015 (i.e., percent production with and without abatement). Industrial Processes and Product Use 4-29

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    Cement Production 33.3 45.9 32.0 35

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    Total 1,862.5 2,441.6 2,197.3 2,059

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    Total Emissions 6,366.7 7,315.6 6,7

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    N2O 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 Oth

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    Coal b 1,653.7 1,596.3 1,809.1 -3%

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    Activity 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2

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    Previous Estimated Emissions from S

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    New Mexico 70,608 52,250 12.0 0.263

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    C Storage Factor, Proportion of Ini

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    2013 321 10,536 2014 323 10,613 201

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    1 2 Table 7-16: Approach 2 Quantita

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    a Miscellaneous includes TSDFs (Tre

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    Enteric Fermentation NC NC + NC + (

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