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DRAFT Inventory of U.S Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

2017_complete_report

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 data (i.e., 1990 through 2008 and 2009). A separate weighted factor is included for 2009 due to data availability for that year. At that time, EPA had initiated compilation of a nitric acid database to improve estimation of emissions from this industry and obtained updated information on application of controls via review of permits and outreach with facilities and trade associations. The research indicated recent installation of abatement technologies at additional facilities. Based on the available data, it was assumed that emission factors for 2010 would be more representative of operating conditions in 1990 through 2009 than more recent years. Initial review of historical data indicates that percent production with and without abatement can change over time and also year over year due to changes in application of facility-level abatement technologies, maintenance of abatement technologies, and also due to plant closures and start-ups (EPA 2012, 2013; Desai 2012; CAR 2013). The installation dates of N 2O abatement technologies are not known at most facilities, but it is assumed that facilities reporting abatement technology use have had this technology installed and operational for the duration of the time series considered in this report (especially NSCRs). The country-specific weighted N 2O emission factors were used in conjunction with annual production to estimate N 2O emissions for 1990 through 2009, using the following equations: E i = P i × EF weighted,i EF weighted,i = ⌊(%P C,i × EF c ) + (%P unc,i × EF unc )⌋ where, E i = Annual N 2O Emissions for year i (kg/yr) P i = Annual nitric acid production for year i (metric tons HNO 3) EF weighted,i = Weighted N 2O emission factor for year i (kg N 2O/metric ton HNO 3) %P c,i = Percent national production of HNO 3 with N 2O abatement technology (%) EF c = N 2O emission factor, with abatement technology (kg N 2O/metric ton HNO 3) %P unc,i = Percent national production of HNO 3 without N 2O abatement technology (%) EF unc = N 2O emission factor, without abatement technology (kg N 2O/metric ton HNO 3) i = year from 1990 through 2009 For 2009: Weighted N 2O emission factor – 5.46 kg N 2O/metric ton HNO 3. For 1990 through 2008: Weighted N 2O emission factor – 5.66 kg N 2O/metric ton HNO 3. Nitric acid production data for the United States for 1990 through 2009 were obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau (U.S. Census Bureau 2008, 2009, 2010a, 2010b) (see Table 4-27). Publicly-available information on plant-level abatement technologies was used to estimate the shares of nitric acid production with and without abatement for 2008 and 2009 (EPA 2012, 2013; Desai 2012; CAR 2013). EPA has previously conducted a review of operating permits to obtain more current information due to the lack of publicly-available data on use of abatement technologies for 1990 through 2007, as stated previously; therefore, the share of national production with and without abatement for 2008 was assumed to be constant for 1990 through 2007. Table 4-27: Nitric Acid Production (kt) Year kt 1990 7,200 2005 6,710 2011 7,600 2012 7,460 2013 7,580 2014 7,660 2015 7,210 4-30 DRAFT Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2015

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Uncertainty and Time-Series Consistency – TO BE UPDATED FOR FINAL INVENTORY REPORT Uncertainty associated with the parameters used to estimate N 2O emissions includes the share of U.S. nitric acid production attributable to each emission abatement technology over the time series (especially prior to 2010), and the associated emission factors applied to each abatement technology type. While some information has been obtained through outreach with industry associations, limited information is available over the time series (especially prior to 2010) for a variety of facility level variables, including plant specific production levels, plant production technology (e.g., low, high pressure, etc.), and abatement technology type, installation date of abatement technology, and accurate destruction and removal efficiency rates. Production data prior to 2010 were obtained from National Census Bureau, which does not provide uncertainty estimates with their data. Facilities reporting to GHGRP must measure production using equipment and practices used for accounting purposes. At this time EPA does not estimate uncertainty of the aggregated facility-level information. To maintain consistency across the time-series and with the rounding approaches taken by other data sets, a new rounding approach was performed for the GHGRP Subpart V: Nitric Acid data. This resulted in production data changes across the time-series of 2010 to 2015, in which GHGRP data has been utilized. The results of this update have had an insignificant impact on the emissions estimates across the 2010 to 2015 time-series. The results of this Approach 2 quantitative uncertainty analysis are summarized in Table 4-28. Nitrous oxide emissions from nitric acid production were estimated were estimated to be between 10.4 and 11.5 MMT CO 2 Eq. at the 95 percent confidence level. This indicates a range of approximately 5 percent below to 5 percent above the 2015 emissions estimate of 11.6 MMT CO 2 Eq. Table 4-28: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for N2O Emissions from Nitric Acid Production (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) Source Gas 2015 Emission Estimate Uncertainty Range Relative to Emission Estimate a (MMT CO2 Eq.) (MMT CO2 Eq.) (%) Lower Bound Upper Bound Lower Bound Upper Bound Nitric Acid Production N2O 11.6 10.4 11.5 -5% +5% a Range of emission estimates predicted by Monte Carlo Stochastic Simulation for a 95 percent confidence interval. 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Methodological recalculations were applied to the entire time series to ensure consistency in emissions from 1990 through 2015. Details on the emission trends through time are described in more detail in the Methodology section, above. Planned Improvements Pending resources, EPA is considering both near-term and long-term improvement to estimates and associated characterization of uncertainty. In the short-term, with 6 years of EPA’s GHGRP data EPA hopes to complete updates of category-specific QC procedures to potentially also improve both qualitative and quantitative uncertainty estimates. Longer term, in 2020 EPA anticipates having information from GHGRP facilities on the installation date of any N 2O abatement equipment, per recent revisions finalized in December 2016 to EPA’s GHGRP. This information will enable more accurate estimation of N 2O emissions from nitric-acid production over the time-series. Industrial Processes and Product Use 4-31

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    a Emissions from Wood Biomass and E

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    Cement Production 33.3 45.9 32.0 35

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    Total 1,862.5 2,441.6 2,197.3 2,059

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    Total Emissions 6,366.7 7,315.6 6,7

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    N2O 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 Oth

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    Coal b 1,653.7 1,596.3 1,809.1 -3%

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    Gas/Waste Product 1990 2005 2011 20

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    Activity 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2

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    Previous Estimated Emissions from S

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    1 Table 4-89: CO2 Emissions from Zi

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    + Does not exceed 0.05 MMT CO2 Eq.

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    Other Lands Converted Grassland Min

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    New Mexico 70,608 52,250 12.0 0.263

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    C Storage Factor, Proportion of Ini

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    Enteric Fermentation NC NC + NC + (

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Quality manual for the greenhouse gas inventory. Version 1.
D - Inventory of Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Abengoa
Use of Models and Facility-Level Data in Greenhouse Gas Inventories
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Heavy-Duty Trucks
Building trust in greenhouse gas inventories from the United ... - WWF
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory for Chapel Hill Street Lights ...
international maritime transport and greenhouse gas emissions - IMO
City of Richmond 2008 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory
2009 Corporate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory - the Town of ...
Expert Meeting on Uncertainty and Validation of Emission Inventories
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Transportation - Center for ...
Greenhouse Gas Emission Policies Is There a Way ... - Castalia
Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Septic ... - Geoflow
Greenhouse gas emissions from production of imported and ... - Inra
Inventory of New York City Greenhouse Gas Emissions - NYC.gov
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Agriculture and Forestry: A ...
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Report - Cal Poly Pomona
Aspen-Pitkin County Airport Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory ...
Annual European Community greenhouse gas inventory 1990-2003
County of San Diego 2005/2006 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory
Reducing U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Center for Climate and ...
GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS - The Sallan Foundation
Projection of Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2010 to 2030
Amendments to UK greenhouse gas emissions trading ... - Gov.UK
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Outlooks and Scenarios, Dolf ... - IPIECA
Reducing US Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Center for Climate and ...