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DRAFT Inventory of U.S Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

2017_complete_report

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 As of 2004, the last remaining sulfate-process plant in the United States closed. Since annual TiO 2 production was not reported by USGS by the type of production process used (chloride or sulfate) prior to 2004 and only the percentage of total production capacity by process was reported, the percent of total TiO 2 production capacity that was attributed to the chloride process was multiplied by total TiO 2 production to estimate the amount of TiO 2 produced using the chloride process. Finally, the emission factor was applied uniformly to all chloride-process production, and no data were available to account for differences in production efficiency among chloride-process plants. In calculating the amount of petroleum coke consumed in chloride-process TiO 2 production, literature data were used for petroleum coke composition. Certain grades of petroleum coke are manufactured specifically for use in the TiO 2 chloride process; however, this composition information was not available. The results of the Approach 2 quantitative uncertainty analysis are summarized in Table 4-38. Titanium dioxide consumption CO 2 emissions from 2015 were estimated to be between 1.5 and 2.0 MMT CO 2 Eq. at the 95 percent confidence level. This indicates a range of approximately 12 percent below and 13 percent above the emission estimate of 1.8 MMT CO 2 Eq. Table 4-38: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for CO2 Emissions from Titanium Dioxide Production (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) Source Gas 2015 Emission Estimate Uncertainty Range Relative to Emission Estimate a (MMT CO2 Eq.) (MMT CO2 Eq.) (%) Lower Bound Upper Bound Lower Bound Upper Bound Titanium Dioxide Production CO2 1.8 1.5 2.0 -12% +13% a Range of emission estimates predicted by Monte Carlo Stochastic Simulation for a 95 percent confidence interval. 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Methodological recalculations were applied to the entire time series to ensure consistency in emissions from 1990 through 2015. Details on the emission trends through time are described in more detail in the Methodology section, above. Recalculations Discussion Production data for 2014 was updated relative to the previous Inventory based on recently published data in the USGS 2016 Minerals Commodity Summaries: Titanium and Titanium Dioxide (USGS 2016). This resulted in a 4 percent decrease in 2014 CO 2 emissions from TiO 2 production relative to the previous report. Planned Improvements Planned improvements include researching the significance of titanium-slag production in electric furnaces and synthetic-rutile production using the Becher process in the United States. Significant use of these production processes will be included in future Inventory reports. This planned improvement is still in development by the EPA and is not included in this report. Pending available resources, EPA will also evaluate use of GHGRP data to improve category-specific QC consistent with both Volume 1, Chapter 6 of 2006 IPCC Guidelines and the latest IPCC guidance on the use of facility-level data in national inventories. 29 29 See . 4-40 DRAFT Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2015

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 4.11 Soda Ash Production and Consumption (IPCC Source Category 2B7) Carbon dioxide (CO 2) is generated as a byproduct of calcining trona ore to produce soda ash, and is eventually emitted into the atmosphere. In addition, CO 2 may also be released when soda ash is consumed. Emissions from fuels consumed for energy purposes during the production and consumption of soda ash are accounted for in the Energy sector. Calcining involves placing crushed trona ore into a kiln to convert sodium bicarbonate into crude sodium carbonate that will later be filtered into pure soda ash. The emission of CO 2 during trona-based production is based on the following reaction: 2Na 2 CO 3 NaHCO 3 2H 2 O(Trona) → 3Na 2 CO 3 (Soda Ash) + 5H 2 O + CO 2 Soda ash (sodium carbonate, Na 2CO 3) is a white crystalline solid that is readily soluble in water and strongly alkaline. Commercial soda ash is used as a raw material in a variety of industrial processes and in many familiar consumer products such as glass, soap and detergents, paper, textiles, and food. (Emissions from soda ash used in glass production are reported under Section 4.3, Glass Production (IPCC Source Category 2A3). Glass production is its own source category and historical soda ash consumption figures have been adjusted to reflect this change.) After glass manufacturing, soda ash is used primarily to manufacture many sodium-based inorganic chemicals, including sodium bicarbonate, sodium chromates, sodium phosphates, and sodium silicates (USGS 2015b). Internationally, two types of soda ash are produced, natural and synthetic. The United States produces only natural soda ash and is second only to China in total soda ash production. Trona is the principal ore from which natural soda ash is made. The United States represents about one-fourth of total world soda ash output. Only two states produce natural soda ash: Wyoming and California. Of these two states, only net emissions of CO 2 from Wyoming were calculated due to specifics regarding the production processes employed in the state. 30 Based on preliminary 2015 reported data, the estimated distribution of soda ash by end-use in 2015 (excluding glass production) was chemical production, 58 percent; soap and detergent manufacturing, 13 percent; distributors, 11 percent; flue gas desulfurization, 9 percent; other uses, 5 percent; water treatment, 3 percent; and pulp and paper production, 2 percent (USGS 2015b). 31 U.S. natural soda ash is competitive in world markets because the majority of the world output of soda ash is made synthetically. Although the United States continues to be a major supplier of world soda ash, China, which surpassed the United States in soda ash production in 2003, is the world’s leading producer. In 2015, CO 2 emissions from the production of soda ash from trona were approximately 1.7 MMT CO 2 Eq. (1,714 kt CO 2). Soda ash consumption in the United States generated 1.1 MMT CO 2 Eq. (1,075 kt CO 2) in 2015. Total emissions from soda ash production and consumption in 2015 were 2.8 MMT CO 2 Eq. (2,789 kt CO 2) (see Table 4-39 and Table 4-40). Total emissions from soda ash production and consumption in 2015 decreased by approximately 1 percent from emissions in 2014, and have stayed approximately the same as 1990 levels. Emissions have remained relatively constant over the time series with some fluctuations since 1990. In general, these fluctuations were related to the behavior of the export market and the U.S. economy. The U.S. soda ash 30 In California, soda ash is manufactured using sodium carbonate-bearing brines instead of trona ore. To extract the sodium carbonate, the complex brines are first treated with CO2 in carbonation towers to convert the sodium carbonate into sodium bicarbonate, which then precipitates from the brine solution. The precipitated sodium bicarbonate is then calcined back into sodium carbonate. Although CO2 is generated as a byproduct, the CO2 is recovered and recycled for use in the carbonation stage and is not emitted. A third state, Colorado, produced soda ash until the plant was idled in 2004. The lone producer of sodium bicarbonate no longer mines trona in the state. For a brief time, sodium bicarbonate was produced using soda ash feedstocks mined in Wyoming and shipped to Colorado. Prior to 2004, because the trona was mined in Wyoming, the production numbers given by the USGS included the feedstocks mined in Wyoming and shipped to Colorado. In this way, the sodium bicarbonate production that took place in Colorado was accounted for in the Wyoming numbers. 31 Percentages may not add up to 100 percent due to independent rounding. Industrial Processes and Product Use 4-41

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    Cement Production 33.3 45.9 32.0 35

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    Total 1,862.5 2,441.6 2,197.3 2,059

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    Total Emissions 6,366.7 7,315.6 6,7

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    N2O 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 Oth

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    Coal b 1,653.7 1,596.3 1,809.1 -3%

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    Activity 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2

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    Emissions (w/o Plunger) (MT) 372,28

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    2013 321 10,536 2014 323 10,613 201

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    1 2 Table 7-16: Approach 2 Quantita

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    a Miscellaneous includes TSDFs (Tre

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    Enteric Fermentation NC NC + NC + (

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