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DRAFT Inventory of U.S Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

2017_complete_report

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 this chapter. EPA’s GHGRP has initiated analysis of reported petrochemical feedstocks but further QC is required. This planned improvement is currently under development and has not been instituted into the current Inventory. 4.13 HCFC-22 Production (IPCC Source Category 2B9a) – TO BE UPDATED FOR FINAL INVENTORY REPORT Trifluoromethane (HFC-23 or CHF 3) is generated as a byproduct during the manufacture of chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22), which is primarily employed in refrigeration and air conditioning systems and as a chemical feedstock for manufacturing synthetic polymers. Between 1990 and 2000, U.S. production of HCFC-22 increased significantly as HCFC-22 replaced chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in many applications. Between 2000 and 2007, U.S. production fluctuated but generally remained above 1990 levels. In 2008 and 2009, U.S. production declined markedly and has remained near 2009 levels since. Because HCFC-22 depletes stratospheric ozone, its production for non-feedstock uses is scheduled to be phased out by 2020 under the U.S. Clean Air Act. 40 Feedstock production, however, is permitted to continue indefinitely. HCFC-22 is produced by the reaction of chloroform (CHCl 3) and hydrogen fluoride (HF) in the presence of a catalyst, SbCl 5. The reaction of the catalyst and HF produces SbCl xF y, (where x + y = 5), which reacts with chlorinated hydrocarbons to replace chlorine atoms with fluorine. The HF and chloroform are introduced by submerged piping into a continuous-flow reactor that contains the catalyst in a hydrocarbon mixture of chloroform and partially fluorinated intermediates. The vapors leaving the reactor contain HCFC-21 (CHCl 2F), HCFC-22 (CHClF 2), HFC-23 (CHF 3), HCl, chloroform, and HF. The under-fluorinated intermediates (HCFC-21) and chloroform are then condensed and returned to the reactor, along with residual catalyst, to undergo further fluorination. The final vapors leaving the condenser are primarily HCFC-22, HFC-23, HCl and residual HF. The HCl is recovered as a useful byproduct, and the HF is removed. Once separated from HCFC-22, the HFC-23 may be released to the atmosphere, recaptured for use in a limited number of applications, or destroyed. Two facilities produced HCFC-22 in the U.S. in 2014. Emissions of HFC-23 from this activity in 2014 were estimated to be 5.0 MMT CO 2 Eq. (0.3 kt) (see Table 4-47). This quantity represents a 23 percent increase from 2013 emissions and an 89 percent decline from 1990 emissions. The increase from 2013 emissions and the decrease from 1990 emissions were caused primarily by changes in the HFC-23 emission rate (kg HFC-23 emitted/kg HCFC- 22 produced). The long-term decrease in the emission rate is primarily attributable to six factors: (a) five plants that did not capture and destroy the HFC-23 generated have ceased production of HCFC-22 since 1990; (b) one plant that captures and destroys the HFC-23 generated began to produce HCFC-22; (c) one plant implemented and documented a process change that reduced the amount of HFC-23 generated; (d) the same plant began recovering HFC-23, primarily for destruction and secondarily for sale; (e) another plant began destroying HFC-23; and (f) the same plant, whose emission factor was higher than that of the other two plants, ceased production of HCFC-22 in 2013. Table 4-47: HFC-23 Emissions from HCFC-22 Production (MMT CO2 Eq. and kt HFC-23) Year MMT CO2 Eq. kt HFC-23 1990 46.1 3 2005 20.0 1 2010 8.0 0.5 2011 8.8 0.6 2012 5.5 0.4 40 As construed, interpreted, and applied in the terms and conditions of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. [42 U.S.C. §7671m(b), CAA §614] 4-50 DRAFT Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2015

2013 4.1 0.3 2014 5.0 0.3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Methodology To estimate HFC-23 emissions for five of the eight HCFC-22 plants that have operated in the United States since 1990, methods comparable to the Tier 3 methods in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC 2006) were used. Emissions for 2010 through 2014 were obtained through reports submitted by U.S. HCFC-22 production facilities to EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP). EPA’s GHGRP mandates that all HCFC-22 production facilities report their annual emissions of HFC-23 from HCFC-22 production processes and HFC-23 destruction processes. Previously, data were obtained by EPA through collaboration with an industry association that received voluntarily reported HCFC-22 production and HFC-23 emissions annually from all U.S. HCFC-22 producers from 1990 through 2009. These emissions were aggregated and reported to EPA on an annual basis. For the other three plants, the last of which closed in 1993, methods comparable to the Tier 1 method in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines were used. Emissions from these three plants have been calculated using the recommended emission factor for unoptimized plants operating before 1995 (0.04 kg HCFC-23/kg HCFC-22 produced). The five plants that have operated since 1994 measure (or, for the plants that have since closed, measured) concentrations of HFC-23 to estimate their emissions of HFC-23. Plants using thermal oxidation to abate their HFC- 23 emissions monitor the performance of their oxidizers to verify that the HFC-23 is almost completely destroyed. Plants that release (or historically have released) some of their byproduct HFC-23 periodically measure HFC-23 concentrations in the output stream using gas chromatography. This information is combined with information on quantities of products (e.g., HCFC-22) to estimate HFC-23 emissions. To estimate 1990 through 2009 emissions, reports from an industry association were used that aggregated HCFC-22 production and HFC-23 emissions from all U.S. HCFC-22 producers and reported them to EPA (ARAP 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010). To estimate 2010 through 2014 emissions, facility-level data (including both HCFC-22 production and HFC-23 emissions) reported through the EPA’s GHGRP were analyzed. In 1997 and 2008, comprehensive reviews of plant-level estimates of HFC-23 emissions and HCFC-22 production were performed (RTI 1997; RTI 2008). The 1997 and 2008 reviews enabled U.S. totals to be reviewed, updated, and where necessary, corrected, and also for plant-level uncertainty analyses (Monte-Carlo simulations) to be performed for 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2006. Estimates of annual U.S. HCFC-22 production are presented in Table 4-48. Table 4-48: HCFC-22 Production (kt) Year kt 1990 139 2005 156 2010 101 2011 110 2012 96 2013 C 2014 C Note: HCFC-22 production in 2013 and 2014 is considered Confidential Business Information (CBI) as there were only two producers of HCFC-22 in 2013 and 2014. 29 30 31 32 Uncertainty and Time-Series Consistency The uncertainty analysis presented in this section was based on a plant-level Monte Carlo Stochastic Simulation for 2006. The Monte Carlo analysis used estimates of the uncertainties in the individual variables in each plant’s estimating procedure. This analysis was based on the generation of 10,000 random samples of model inputs from the Industrial Processes and Product Use 4-51

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    Cement Production 33.3 45.9 32.0 35

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    Total 1,862.5 2,441.6 2,197.3 2,059

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    Total Emissions 6,366.7 7,315.6 6,7

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    Coal b 1,653.7 1,596.3 1,809.1 -3%

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    Activity 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2

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    Emissions (w/o Plunger) (MT) 372,28

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    New Mexico 70,608 52,250 12.0 0.263

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    C Storage Factor, Proportion of Ini

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