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DRAFT Inventory of U.S Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

2017_complete_report

1 Table 4-62: CH4

1 Table 4-62: CH4 Emissions from Iron and Steel Production (kt) Source/Activity Data 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Sinter Production 0.9 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 Total 0.9 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Methodology Emission estimates presented in this chapter are largely based on Tier 2 methodologies provided by the 2006 IPCC Guidelines. These Tier 2 methodologies call for a mass balance accounting of the carbonaceous inputs and outputs during the iron and steel production process and the metallurgical coke production process. Tier 1 methods are used for certain iron and steel production processes (i.e., sinter production, pellet production and DRI production) for which available data are insufficient for utilizing a Tier 2 method. The Tier 2 methodology equation is as follows: E CO2 = [∑(Q a × C a ) − ∑(Q b × C b )] × 44 12 a where, E CO2 = Emissions from coke, pig iron, EAF steel, or BOF steel production, metric tons a = Input material a b = Output material b Q a = Quantity of input material a, metric tons C a = Carbon content of input material a, metric tons C/metric ton material Q b = Quantity of output material b, metric tons C b = Carbon content of output material b, metric tons C/metric ton material 44/12 = Stoichiometric ratio of CO 2 to C The Tier 1 methodology equations are as follows: E s,p = Q s × EF s,p E d,CO2 = Q d × EF d,CO2 E p,CO2 = Q p × EF p,CO2 where, E s,p = Emissions from sinter production process for pollutant p (CO 2 or CH 4), metric ton Q s = Quantity of sinter produced, metric tons EF s,p = Emission factor for pollutant p (CO 2 or CH 4), metric ton p/metric ton sinter E d,CO2 = Emissions from DRI production process for CO 2, metric ton Q d = Quantity of DRI produced, metric tons EF d,CO2 = Emission factor for CO 2, metric ton CO 2/metric ton DRI Q p = Quantity of pellets produced, metric tons EF p,CO2 = Emission factor for CO 2, metric ton CO 2/metric ton pellets produced Metallurgical Coke Production Coking coal is used to manufacture metallurgical coke that is used primarily as a reducing agent in the production of iron and steel, but is also used in the production of other metals including zinc and lead (see Zinc Production and Lead Production sections of this chapter). Emissions associated with producing metallurgical coke from coking coal are estimated and reported separately from emissions that result from the iron and steel production process. To estimate emissions from metallurgical coke production, a Tier 2 method provided by the 2006 IPCC Guidelines was utilized. The amount of carbon contained in materials produced during the metallurgical coke production process b 4-62 DRAFT Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2015

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 (i.e., coke, coke breeze, coke oven gas, and coal tar) is deducted from the amount of carbon contained in materials consumed during the metallurgical coke production process (i.e., natural gas, blast furnace gas, and coking coal). Light oil, which is produced during the metallurgical coke production process, is excluded from the deductions due to data limitations. The amount of carbon contained in these materials is calculated by multiplying the materialspecific carbon content by the amount of material consumed or produced (see Table 4-63). The amount of coal tar produced was approximated using a production factor of 0.03 tons of coal tar per ton of coking coal consumed. The amount of coke breeze produced was approximated using a production factor of 0.075 tons of coke breeze per ton of coking coal consumed (AISI 2008; DOE 2000). Data on the consumption of carbonaceous materials (other than coking coal) as well as coke oven gas production were available for integrated steel mills only (i.e., steel mills with co-located coke plants). Therefore, carbonaceous material (other than coking coal) consumption and coke oven gas production were excluded from emission estimates for merchant coke plants. Carbon contained in coke oven gas used for coke-oven underfiring was not included in the deductions to avoid double-counting. Table 4-63: Material Carbon Contents for Metallurgical Coke Production Material kg C/kg Coal Tar 0.62 Coke 0.83 Coke Breeze 0.83 Coking Coal 0.73 Material kg C/GJ Coke Oven Gas 12.1 Blast Furnace Gas 70.8 Source: IPCC (2006), Table 4.3. Coke Oven Gas and Blast Furnace Gas, Table 1.3. 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Although the 2006 IPCC Guidelines provide a Tier 1 CH 4 emission factor for metallurgical coke production (i.e., 0.1 g CH 4 per metric ton of coke production), it is not appropriate to use because CO 2 emissions were estimated using the Tier 2 mass balance methodology. The mass balance methodology makes a basic assumption that all carbon that enters the metallurgical coke production process either exits the process as part of a carbon-containing output or as CO 2 emissions. This is consistent with a preliminary assessment of aggregated facility-level greenhouse gas CH 4 emissions reported by coke production facilities under EPA’s GHGRP. The assessment indicates that CH 4 emissions from coke production are below 500 kt or 0.05 percent of total national emissions. Pending resources and significance, EPA will assess the possibility of including these emissions in future reports to enhance completeness and has not incorporated these emissions into this report. Data relating to the mass of coking coal consumed at metallurgical coke plants and the mass of metallurgical coke produced at coke plants were taken from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), Quarterly Coal Report: October through December (EIA 1998 through 2016a) (see Table 4-64). Data on the volume of natural gas consumption, blast furnace gas consumption, and coke oven gas production for metallurgical coke production at integrated steel mills were obtained from the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), Annual Statistical Report (AISI 2004 through 2016a) and through personal communications with AISI (AISI 2008) (see Table 4-65). The factor for the quantity of coal tar produced per ton of coking coal consumed was provided by AISI (AISI 2008). The factor for the quantity of coke breeze produced per ton of coking coal consumed was obtained through Table 2-1 of the report Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry (DOE 2000). Data on natural gas consumption and coke oven gas production at merchant coke plants were not available and were excluded from the emission estimate. Carbon contents for coking coal, metallurgical coke, coal tar, coke oven gas, and blast furnace gas were provided by the 2006 IPCC Guidelines. The C content for coke breeze was assumed to equal the C content of coke. Table 4-64: Production and Consumption Data for the Calculation of CO2 and CH4 Emissions from Metallurgical Coke Production (Thousand Metric Tons) Source/Activity Data 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Metallurgical Coke Production Coking Coal Consumption at Coke Plants 35,269 21,259 19,445 18,825 19,481 19,321 17,879 Coke Production at Coke Plants 25,054 15,167 13,989 13,764 13,898 13,748 12,479 Industrial Processes and Product Use 4-63

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    a Emissions from Wood Biomass and E

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    Cement Production 33.3 45.9 32.0 35

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    Total 1,862.5 2,441.6 2,197.3 2,059

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    Total Emissions 6,366.7 7,315.6 6,7

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    N2O 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 Oth

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    U.S. Territories a 28.0 50.1 41.7 4

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    Fuel Oil 27.2 45.6 36.7 37.6 37.1 3

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    Coal b 1,653.7 1,596.3 1,809.1 -3%

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    Gas/Waste Product 1990 2005 2011 20

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    Activity 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2

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    Previous Estimated Emissions from S

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    Emissions (w/o Plunger) (MT) 372,28

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    CO2 206.8 189.9 172.9 169.6 171.5 1

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    New Mexico 70,608 52,250 12.0 0.263

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    C Storage Factor, Proportion of Ini

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    2013 321 10,536 2014 323 10,613 201

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 %Plants a %Plants

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    1 2 Table 7-16: Approach 2 Quantita

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 EF i = emissio

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    a Miscellaneous includes TSDFs (Tre

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    Enteric Fermentation NC NC + NC + (

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Quality manual for the greenhouse gas inventory. Version 1.
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