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DRAFT Inventory of U.S Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

2017_complete_report

Coal Breeze Production

Coal Breeze Production 2,645 1,594 1,458 1,412 1,461 1,449 1,341 Coal Tar Production 1,058 638 583 565 584 580 536 1 2 Table 4-65: Production and Consumption Data for the Calculation of CO2 Emissions from Metallurgical Coke Production (Million ft 3 ) Source/Activity Data 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Metallurgical Coke Production Coke Oven Gas Production 250,767 114,213 109,044 113,772 108,162 102,899 84,336 Natural Gas Consumption 599 2,996 3,175 3,267 3,247 3,039 2,338 Blast Furnace Gas Consumption 24,602 4,460 3,853 4,351 4,255 4,346 4,185 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Iron and Steel Production Emissions of CO 2 from sinter production, direct reduced iron production and pellet production were estimated by multiplying total national sinter production and the total national direct reduced iron production by Tier 1 CO 2 emission factors (see Table 4-66). Because estimates of sinter production, direct reduced iron production and pellet production were not available, production was assumed to equal consumption. Table 4-66: CO2 Emission Factors for Sinter Production, Direct Reduced Iron Production and Pellet Production Metric Ton Material Produced CO2/Metric Ton Sinter 0.2 Direct Reduced Iron 0.7 Pellet Production 0.03 Source: IPCC (2006), Table 4.1. 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 To estimate emissions from pig iron production in the blast furnace, the amount of carbon contained in the produced pig iron and blast furnace gas were deducted from the amount of carbon contained in inputs (i.e., metallurgical coke, sinter, natural ore, pellets, natural gas, fuel oil, coke oven gas, and direct coal injection). The carbon contained in the pig iron, blast furnace gas, and blast furnace inputs was estimated by multiplying the material-specific C content by each material type (see Table 4-67). Carbon in blast furnace gas used to pre-heat the blast furnace air is combusted to form CO 2 during this process. Carbon contained in blast furnace gas used as a blast furnace input was not included in the deductions to avoid double-counting. Emissions from steel production in EAFs were estimated by deducting the carbon contained in the steel produced from the carbon contained in the EAF anode, charge carbon, and scrap steel added to the EAF. Small amounts of carbon from direct reduced iron, pig iron, and flux additions to the EAFs were also included in the EAF calculation. For BOFs, estimates of carbon contained in BOF steel were deducted from C contained in inputs such as natural gas, coke oven gas, fluxes, and pig iron. In each case, the carbon was calculated by multiplying material-specific carbon contents by each material type (see Table 4-67). For EAFs, the amount of EAF anode consumed was approximated by multiplying total EAF steel production by the amount of EAF anode consumed per metric ton of steel produced (0.002 metric tons EAF anode per metric ton steel produced [AISI 2008]). The amount of flux (e.g., limestone and dolomite) used during steel manufacture was deducted from the “Other Process Uses of Carbonates” source category (IPCC Source Category 2A4) to avoid double-counting. Carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of blast furnace gas and coke oven gas for other activities occurring at the steel mill were estimated by multiplying the amount of these materials consumed for these purposes by the material-specific carbon content (see Table 4-67). Carbon dioxide emissions associated with the sinter production, direct reduced iron production, pig iron production, steel production, and other steel mill activities were summed to calculate the total CO 2 emissions from iron and steel production (see Table 4-59 and Table 4-60). 4-64 DRAFT Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2015

1 Table 4-67: Material Carbon Contents for Iron and Steel Production Material kg C/kg Coke 0.83 Direct Reduced Iron 0.02 Dolomite 0.13 EAF Carbon Electrodes 0.82 EAF Charge Carbon 0.83 Limestone 0.12 Pig Iron 0.04 Steel 0.01 Material kg C/GJ Coke Oven Gas 12.1 Blast Furnace Gas 70.8 Source: IPCC (2006), Table 4.3. Coke Oven Gas and Blast Furnace Gas, Table 1.3. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 The production process for sinter results in fugitive emissions of CH 4, which are emitted via leaks in the production equipment, rather than through the emission stacks or vents of the production plants. The fugitive emissions were calculated by applying Tier 1 emission factors taken from the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for sinter production (see Table 4-68). Although the 1995 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC/UNEP/OECD/IEA 1995) provide a Tier 1 CH 4 emission factor for pig iron production, it is not appropriate to use because CO 2 emissions were estimated using the Tier 2 mass balance methodology. The mass balance methodology makes a basic assumption that all carbon that enters the pig iron production process either exits the process as part of a carbon-containing output or as CO 2 emissions; the estimation of CH 4 emissions is precluded. A preliminary analysis of facility-level emissions reported during iron production further supports this assumption and indicates that CH 4 emissions are below 500 kt CO 2 Eq. and well below 0.05 percent of total national emissions. The production of direct reduced iron also results in emissions of CH 4 through the consumption of fossil fuels (e.g., natural gas, etc.); however, these emission estimates are excluded due to data limitations. Pending further analysis and resources, EPA may include these emissions in future reports to enhance completeness. EPA is still assessing the possibility of including these emissions in future reports and have not included this data into the current report. Table 4-68: CH4 Emission Factors for Sinter and Pig Iron Production Material Produced Factor Unit Sinter 0.07 kg CH4/metric ton Source: IPCC (2006), Table 4.2. 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Sinter consumption and pellet consumption data for 1990 through 2015 were obtained from AISI’s Annual Statistical Report (AISI 2004 through 2016a) and through personal communications with AISI (AISI 2008) (see Table 4-69). In general, direct reduced iron (DRI) consumption data were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook – Iron and Steel Scrap (USGS 1991 through 2015) and personal communication with the USGS Iron and Steel Commodity Specialist (Fenton 2015). However, data for DRI consumed in EAFs were not available for the years 1990 and 1991. EAF DRI consumption in 1990 and 1991 was calculated by multiplying the total DRI consumption for all furnaces by the EAF share of total DRI consumption in 1992. Also, data for DRI consumed in BOFs were not available for the years 1990 through 1993. BOF DRI consumption in 1990 through 1993 was calculated by multiplying the total DRI consumption for all furnaces (excluding EAFs and cupola) by the BOF share of total DRI consumption (excluding EAFs and cupola) in 1994. The Tier 1 CO 2 emission factors for sinter production, direct reduced iron production and pellet production were obtained through the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC 2006). Time series data for pig iron production, coke, natural gas, fuel oil, sinter, and pellets consumed in the blast furnace; pig iron production; and blast furnace gas produced at the iron and steel mill and used in the metallurgical coke ovens and other steel mill activities were obtained from AISI’s Annual Statistical Report (AISI 2004 through 2016a) and through personal communications with AISI (AISI 2008) (see Table 4-69 and Table 4-70). Data for EAF steel production, flux, EAF charge carbon, and natural gas consumption were obtained from AISI’s Annual Statistical Report (AISI 2004 through 2016a) and through personal communications with AISI (AISI 2006 Industrial Processes and Product Use 4-65

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    Cement Production 33.3 45.9 32.0 35

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    Total 1,862.5 2,441.6 2,197.3 2,059

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    Total Emissions 6,366.7 7,315.6 6,7

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    Coal b 1,653.7 1,596.3 1,809.1 -3%

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    Activity 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2

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    Previous Estimated Emissions from S

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    Emissions (w/o Plunger) (MT) 372,28

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    New Mexico 70,608 52,250 12.0 0.263

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    C Storage Factor, Proportion of Ini

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    2013 321 10,536 2014 323 10,613 201

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    1 2 Table 7-16: Approach 2 Quantita

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    a Miscellaneous includes TSDFs (Tre

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    Enteric Fermentation NC NC + NC + (

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Quality manual for the greenhouse gas inventory. Version 1.
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