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DRAFT Inventory of U.S Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

2017_complete_report

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 through 2016b and AISI 2008). The factor for the quantity of EAF anode consumed per ton of EAF steel produced was provided by AISI (AISI 2008). Data for BOF steel production, flux, natural gas, natural ore, pellet, sinter consumption as well as BOF steel production were obtained from AISI’s Annual Statistical Report (AISI 2004 through 2016a) and through personal communications with AISI (AISI 2008). Data for EAF and BOF scrap steel, pig iron, and DRI consumption were obtained from the USGS Minerals Yearbook – Iron and Steel Scrap (USGS 1991 through 2015). Data on coke oven gas and blast furnace gas consumed at the iron and steel mill (other than in the EAF, BOF, or blast furnace) were obtained from AISI’s Annual Statistical Report (AISI 2004 through 2016a) and through personal communications with AISI (AISI 2008). Data on blast furnace gas and coke oven gas sold for use as synthetic natural gas were obtained from EIA’s Natural Gas Annual (EIA 2016b). Carbon contents for direct reduced iron, EAF carbon electrodes, EAF charge carbon, limestone, dolomite, pig iron, and steel were provided by the 2006 IPCC Guidelines. The carbon contents for natural gas, fuel oil, and direct injection coal were obtained from EIA (EIA 2016c) and EPA (EPA 2010). Heat contents for fuel oil and direct injection coal were obtained from EIA (EIA 1992, 2011); natural gas heat content was obtained from Table 37 of AISI’s Annual Statistical Report (AISI 2004 through 2016a). Heat contents for coke oven gas and blast furnace gas were provided in Table 37 of AISI’s Annual Statistical Report (AISI 2004 through 2016a) and confirmed by AISI staff (Carroll 2016). Table 4-69: Production and Consumption Data for the Calculation of CO2 and CH4 Emissions from Iron and Steel Production (Thousand Metric Tons) Source/Activity Data 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Sinter Production Sinter Production 12,239 8,315 5,941 5,795 5,583 5,521 5,079 Direct Reduced Iron Production Direct Reduced Iron Production 516 1,303 1,582 3,530 3,350 4,790 4,790 Pellet Production Pellet Production 60,563 50,096 36,041 39,288 38,198 37,538 32,146 Pig Iron Production Coke Consumption 24,946 13,832 11,962 9,571 9,308 11,136 7,969 Pig Iron Production 49,669 37,222 30,228 32,063 30,309 29,375 25,436 Direct Injection Coal Consumption 1,485 2,573 2,604 2,802 2,675 2,425 2,275 EAF Steel Production EAF Anode and Charge Carbon Consumption 67 1,127 1,257 1,318 1,122 1,127 1,116 Scrap Steel Consumption 42,691 46,600 50,500 50,900 47,300 48,873 48,873 Flux Consumption 319 695 726 748 771 771 726 EAF Steel Production 33,511 52,194 52,108 52,415 52,641 55,174 49,451 BOF Steel Production Pig Iron Consumption 47,307 34,400 31,300 31,500 29,600 23,755 23,755 Scrap Steel Consumption 14,713 11,400 8,800 8,350 7,890 5,917 5,917 Flux Consumption 576 582 454 476 454 454 454 BOF Steel Production 43,973 42,705 34,291 36,282 34,238 33,000 29,396 4-66 DRAFT Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2015

1 2 Table 4-70: Production and Consumption Data for the Calculation of CO2 Emissions from Iron and Steel Production (Million ft 3 unless otherwise specified) Source/Activity Data 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Pig Iron Production Natural Gas Consumption 56,273 59,844 59,132 62,469 48,812 47,734 43,294 Fuel Oil Consumption (thousand gallons) 163,397 16,170 21,378 19,240 17,468 16,674 9,326 Coke Oven Gas Consumption 22,033 16,557 17,772 18,608 17,710 16,896 13,921 Blast Furnace Gas Production 1,439,380 1,299,980 1,063,326 1,139,578 1,026,973 1,000,536 874,670 EAF Steel Production Natural Gas Consumption 15,905 19,985 6,263 11,145 10,514 9,622 8,751 BOF Steel Production Coke Oven Gas Consumption 3,851 524 554 568 568 524 386 Other Activities Coke Oven Gas Consumption 224,883 97,132 90,718 94,596 89,884 85,479 70,029 Blast Furnace Gas Consumption 1,414,778 1,295,520 1,059,473 1,135,227 1,022,718 996,190 870,485 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Uncertainty and Time-Series Consistency – TO BE UPDATED FOR FINAL INVENTORY REPORT The estimates of CO 2 emissions from metallurgical coke production are based on material production and consumption data and average carbon contents. Uncertainty is associated with the total U.S. coking coal consumption, total U.S. coke production and materials consumed during this process. Data for coking coal consumption and metallurgical coke production are from different data sources (EIA) than data for other carbonaceous materials consumed at coke plants (AISI), which does not include data for merchant coke plants. There is uncertainty associated with the fact that coal tar and coke breeze production were estimated based on coke production because coal tar and coke breeze production data were not available. Since merchant coke plant data is not included in the estimate of other carbonaceous materials consumed at coke plants, the mass balance equation for CO 2 from metallurgical coke production cannot be reasonably completed. Therefore, for the purpose of this analysis, uncertainty parameters are applied to primary data inputs to the calculation (i.e., coking coal consumption and metallurgical coke production) only. The estimates of CO 2 emissions from iron and steel production are based on material production and consumption data and average C contents. Current estimates include estimates from pellet consumption, but exclude emissions from pellet production. For the Final draft of this Inventory report (i.e., 1990 through 2015), pellet production will be included in emissions estimates. There is uncertainty associated with the assumption that pellet production, direct reduced iron and sinter consumption are equal to production. There is uncertainty with the representativeness of the associated IPCC default emission factors. There is uncertainty associated with the assumption that all coal used for purposes other than coking coal is for direct injection coal; some of this coal may be used for electricity generation. There is also uncertainty associated with the C contents for pellets, sinter, and natural ore, which are assumed to equal the C contents of direct reduced iron, when consumed in the blast furnace. For EAF steel production, there is uncertainty associated with the amount of EAF anode and charge carbon consumed due to inconsistent data throughout the time series. Also for EAF steel production, there is uncertainty associated with the assumption that 100 percent of the natural gas attributed to “steelmaking furnaces” by AISI is process-related and nothing is combusted for energy purposes. Uncertainty is also associated with the use of process gases such as blast furnace gas and coke oven gas. Data are not available to differentiate between the use of these gases for processes at the steel mill versus for energy generation (i.e., electricity and steam generation); therefore, all consumption is attributed Industrial Processes and Product Use 4-67

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    Forest Land Remaining Forest Land:

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    a Emission estimates reported in th

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    a Emissions from Wood Biomass and E

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    Electrical Transmission and Distrib

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    Wetlands (4.0) (5.3) (4.1) (4.2) (4

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    1 2 3 4 Overall, in 2015, waste act

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    Cement Production 33.3 45.9 32.0 35

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    Total 1,862.5 2,441.6 2,197.3 2,059

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    Total Emissions 6,366.7 7,315.6 6,7

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    N2O 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 Oth

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    International Bunker Fuels a 0.2 0.

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    1 Figure 3-3: 2015 U.S. Energy Cons

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    U.S. Territories a 28.0 50.1 41.7 4

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    Fuel Oil 27.2 45.6 36.7 37.6 37.1 3

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    Medium- and Heavy-Duty 0.5 0.9 0.7

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    Coal b 1,653.7 1,596.3 1,809.1 -3%

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    1 Table 3-20: Adjusted Consumption

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    Gas/Waste Product 1990 2005 2011 20

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    Activity 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2

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    Previous Estimated Emissions from S

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    Emissions (w/o Plunger) (MT) 372,28

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    Reciprocating Compressors 64,413 64

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    CO2 206.8 189.9 172.9 169.6 171.5 1

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    + Does not exceed 0.05 MMT CO2 Eq.

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    Land Converted to Forest Land (92.0

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    New Mexico 70,608 52,250 12.0 0.263

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    C Storage Factor, Proportion of Ini

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    2013 321 10,536 2014 323 10,613 201

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