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DRAFT Inventory of U.S Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

2017_complete_report

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 Recalculations Discussion For one GHGRP-reporting facility, a recalculation for 2014 CO 2 emissions was performed to ensure methodological consistency and based on the availability of new data. The CO 2 emissions for this facility in 2014 were previously held constant at 2013 levels based on data reported through the EPA’s GHGRP. Since the facility reported 2015 data, but did report in 2014, the estimate of 2014 emissions has been revised by interpolating the reported emissions between 2013 and 2015, reported via EPA’s GHGRP. This has caused a slight decrease in the CO 2 emissions for 2014 compared to the previous Inventory. One facility revised its GHGRP reported data for 2014 HFC-134a emissions, resulting in a decrease in overall 2014 emissions. A facility that had not previously reported under the GHGRP reported 2014 and 2015 SF 6 die-casting emissions in 2016. Since production levels were held constant from 2014 data, the resulting adjustment to non-GHGRP casting production led to a slight decrease in 2014 SF 6 emissions. Planned Improvements Cover gas research conducted over the last decade has found that SF 6 used for magnesium melt protection can have degradation rates on the order of 20 percent in die casting applications (Bartos et al. 2007). Current emission estimates assume (per the 2006 IPCC Guidelines) that all SF 6 utilized is emitted to the atmosphere. Additional research may lead to a revision of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines to reflect this phenomenon and until such time, developments in this sector will be monitored for possible application to the inventory methodology. Usage and emission details of carrier gases in permanent mold, wrought and anode processes will be researched as part of a future inventory. Based on this research, it will be determined if CO 2 carrier gas emissions are to be estimated. 4.20 Lead Production (IPCC Source Category 2C5) Lead production in the United States consists of both primary and secondary processes—both of which emit carbon dioxide (CO 2) (Sjardin 2003). Emissions from fuels consumed for energy purposes during the production of lead are accounted for in the Energy chapter. Primary production of lead through the direct smelting of lead concentrate produces CO 2 emissions as the lead concentrates are reduced in a furnace using metallurgical coke (Sjardin 2003). Primary lead production, in the form of direct smelting, previously occurred at a single smelter in Missouri. This primary lead smelter was closed at the end of 2013. In 2014, the smelter processed a small amount of residual lead during demolition of the site (USGS 2015). In 2015, the smelter processed no lead (USGS 2016). Similar to primary lead production, CO 2 emissions from secondary lead production result when a reducing agent, usually metallurgical coke, is added to the smelter to aid in the reduction process. Carbon dioxide emissions from secondary production also occur through the treatment of secondary raw materials (Sjardin 2003). Secondary production primarily involves the recycling of lead acid batteries and post-consumer scrap at secondary smelters. Of all the domestic secondary smelters operational in 2015, 11 smelters had capacities of 30,000 tons or more and were collectively responsible for more than 95 percent of secondary lead production in 2015 (USGS 2016). Secondary lead production has increased in the United States over the past decade while primary lead production has decreased to production levels of zero. In 2015, secondary lead production accounted for 100 percent of total lead production. As was the case in 2014, the lead-acid battery industry accounted for about 90 percent of the reported U.S. lead consumption in 2015 (USGS 2016). In 2015, total secondary lead production in the United States was slightly lower than that in 2014. Increased production at a couple of smelters was expected to be offset by temporary closure of one smelter. In 2014, a 4-82 DRAFT Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2015

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 producer temporarily shut down operations of a lead smelter in Vernon, CA (90,000 metric ton capacity smelter) due to environmental concerns from state regulators. As stated in the previous inventory report, the company intended to restart operations in 2015, after making improvements to the plant, but closed the plant instead. In 2015, one secondary producer announced plans to build a new plant in Nevada capable of producing high-purity lead for use in advanced lead-acid batteries; this plant is expected to be built in 2016. Increases in exports of spent lead-acid batteries in recent years have decreased the amount of scrap available to secondary smelters (USGS 2016). U.S. primary lead production reached production levels of zero, a decrease of 100 percent from 2014 to 2015, and has also decreased by 100 percent since 1990. This is due to the closure of the only domestic primary lead smelter in 2013 (year-end). In 2015, U.S. secondary lead production dropped slightly from 2014 levels (decrease of 1 percent), and has increased by 21 percent since 1990 (USGS 1995 through 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016). In 2015, U.S. primary and secondary lead production totaled 1,120,000 metric tons (USGS 2016). The resulting emissions of CO 2 from 2015 lead production were estimated to be 0.5 MMT CO 2 Eq. (504 kt) (see Table 4-85). All of the 2015 lead production is from secondary processes, which accounted for 100 percent of total 2015 CO 2 emissions from lead production. At last reporting, the United States was the third largest mine producer of lead in the world, behind China and Australia, accounting for approximately 8 percent of world production in 2015 (USGS 2016. Table 4-85: CO2 Emissions from Lead Production (MMT CO2 Eq. and kt) Year MMT CO2 Eq. kt 1990 0.5 516 2005 0.6 553 2011 0.5 538 2012 0.5 527 2013 0.5 546 2014 0.5 509 2015 0.5 504 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 After a steady increase in total emissions from 1995 to 2000, total emissions have gradually decreased since 2000 and are currently lower than 1990 levels. Methodology The methods used to estimate emissions for lead production 49 are based on Sjardin’s work (Sjardin 2003) for lead production emissions and Tier 1 methods from the 2006 IPCC Guidelines. The Tier 1 equation is as follows: CO 2 Emissions = (DS × EF DS ) + (S × EF S ) where, DS = Lead produced by direct smelting, metric ton S = Lead produced from secondary materials EF DS = Emission factor for direct Smelting, metric tons CO 2/metric ton lead product EF S = Emission factor for secondary materials, metric tons CO 2/metric ton lead product For primary lead production using direct smelting, Sjardin (2003) and the IPCC (2006) provide an emission factor of 0.25 metric tons CO 2/metric ton lead. For secondary lead production, Sjardin (2003) and IPCC (2006) provide an emission factor of 0.25 metric tons CO 2/metric ton lead for direct smelting, as well as an emission factor of 0.2 metric tons CO 2/metric ton lead produced for the treatment of secondary raw materials (i.e., pretreatment of lead 49 EPA has not integrated aggregated facility-level Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP) information to inform these estimates. The aggregated information (e.g., activity data and emissions) associated with Lead Production did not meet criteria to shield underlying confidential business information (CBI) from public disclosure. Industrial Processes and Product Use 4-83

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    a Emissions from Wood Biomass and E

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    1 2 3 4 Overall, in 2015, waste act

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    Cement Production 33.3 45.9 32.0 35

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    Total 1,862.5 2,441.6 2,197.3 2,059

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    Total Emissions 6,366.7 7,315.6 6,7

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    N2O 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 Oth

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    Coal b 1,653.7 1,596.3 1,809.1 -3%

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    Gas/Waste Product 1990 2005 2011 20

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    Activity 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2

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    Previous Estimated Emissions from S

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    Emissions (w/o Plunger) (MT) 372,28

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    CO2 206.8 189.9 172.9 169.6 171.5 1

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    2012 13.8 13,785 2013 14.0 14,028 2

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    + Does not exceed 0.05 MMT CO2 Eq.

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    New Mexico 70,608 52,250 12.0 0.263

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    C Storage Factor, Proportion of Ini

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    2013 321 10,536 2014 323 10,613 201

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