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DRAFT Inventory of U.S Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

2017_complete_report

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 temperatures reach approximately 1,100 to 1,200 degrees Celsius, zinc fumes are produced, which are combusted with air entering the kiln. This combustion forms zinc oxide, which is collected in a baghouse or electrostatic precipitator, and is then leached to remove chloride and fluoride. The use of carbon-containing metallurgical coke in a high-temperature fuming process results in non-energy CO 2 emissions. Through this process, approximately 0.33 metric tons of zinc is produced for every metric ton of EAF dust treated (Viklund-White 2000). The only companies in the United States that use emissive technology to produce secondary zinc products are Horsehead, PIZO, and Steel Dust Recycling. For Horsehead, EAF dust is recycled in Waelz kilns at their Beaumont, TX; Calumet, IL; Palmerton, PA; Rockwood, TN; and Barnwell, SC facilities. These Waelz kiln facilities produce intermediate zinc products (crude zinc oxide or calcine), most of which was transported to their Monaca, PA facility where the products were smelted into refined zinc using electrothermic technology. In April 2014, Horsehead permanently shut down their Monaca smelter. This was replaced by their new facility in Mooresboro, NC. The new Mooresboro facility uses a hydrometallurgical process (i.e., solvent extraction with electrowinning technology) to produce zinc products. The current capacity of the new facility is 155,000 short tons, with plans to expand to 170,000 short tons per year. During the fourth quarter of 2015, the Mooresboro facility was only operating at approximately 25 percent of capacity (Horsehead 2016). Direct consumption of coal, coke, and natural gas have been replaced with electricity consumption at the new Mooresboro facility. The new facility is reported to have a significantly lower greenhouse gas and other air emissions than the Monaca smelter (Horsehead 2012b). The Mooresboro facility uses leaching and solvent extraction (SX) technology combined with electrowinning, melting, and casting technology. In this process, Waelz Oxide (WOX) is first washed in water to remove soluble elements such as chlorine, potassium, and sodium, and then is leached in a sulfuric acid solution to dissolve the contained zinc creating a pregnant liquor solution (PLS). The PLS is then processed in a solvent extraction step in which zinc is selectively extracted from the PLS using an organic solvent creating a purified zinc-loaded electrolyte solution. The loaded electrolyte solution is then fed into the electrowinning process in which electrical energy is applied across a series of anodes and cathodes submerged in the electrolyte solution causing the zinc to deposit on the surfaces of the cathodes. As the zinc metal builds up on these surfaces, the cathodes are periodically harvested in order to strip the zinc from their surfaces (Horsehead 2015). Hydrometallurgical production processes are assumed to be non-emissive since no carbon is used in these processes (Sjardin 2003). PIZO and Steel Dust Recycling recycle EAF dust into intermediate zinc products using Waelz kilns, and then sell the intermediate products to companies who smelt it into refined products. In 2015, U.S. primary and secondary refined zinc production were estimated to total 175,000 metric tons (USGS 2016 (see Table 4-88). Domestic zinc mine production increased slightly in 2015 compared to 2014 levels, primarily owing mostly to the reopening of the Pend Oreille Mine in Washington in late 2014. The mine was expected to reach full production by yearend 2015. Zinc metal production decreased slightly due to a decline in secondary production; in 2014, Horsehead closed its smelter in Monaca, PA, while starting up its new recycling facility in Mooresboro, NC. However, the new facility experienced continued delays in ramp-up efforts due to technical issues (USGS 2016). Primary zinc production (primary slab zinc) increased by 14 percent in 2015, while, secondary zinc production in 2015 decreased by 29 percent relative to 2014. Emissions of CO 2 from zinc production in 2015 were estimated to be 0.9 MMT CO 2 Eq. (933 kt CO 2) (see Table 4-89). All 2015 CO 2 emissions resulted from secondary zinc production processes. Emissions from zinc production in the United States have increased overall since 1990 due to a gradual shift from non-emissive primary production to emissive secondary production. In 2015, emissions were estimated to be 48 percent higher than they were in 1990. Table 4-88: Zinc Production (Metric Tons) Year Primary Secondary 1990 262,704 95,708 2005 191,120 156,000 2011 110,000 138,000 2012 114,000 147,000 2013 106,000 127,000 2014 110,000 70,000 2015 125,000 50,000 4-86 DRAFT Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2015

1 Table 4-89: CO2 Emissions from Zinc Production (MMT CO2 Eq. and kt) Year MMT CO2 Eq. kt 1990 0.6 632 2005 1.0 1,030 2011 1.3 1,286 2012 1.5 1,486 2013 1.4 1,429 2014 1.0 956 2015 0.9 933 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Methodology The methods used to estimate non-energy CO 2 emissions from zinc production 51 using the electrothermic primary production and Waelz kiln secondary production processes are based on Tier 1 methods from the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC 2006). The Tier 1 equation used to estimate emissions from zinc production is as follows: E CO2 = Zn × EF default where, E CO2 = CO 2 emissions from zinc production, metric tons Zn = Quantity of zinc produced, metric tons EF default = Default emission factor, metric tons CO 2/metric ton zinc produced The Tier 1 emission factors provided by IPCC for Waelz kiln-based secondary production were derived from coke consumption factors and other data presented in Vikland-White (2000). These coke consumption factors as well as other inputs used to develop the Waelz kiln emission factors are shown below. IPCC does not provide an emission factor for electrothermic processes due to limited information; therefore, the Waelz kiln-specific emission factors were also applied to zinc produced from electrothermic processes. Starting in 2014, refined zinc produced in the United States used hydrometallurgical processes and is assumed to be non-emissive. For Waelz kiln-based production, IPCC recommends the use of emission factors based on EAF dust consumption, if possible, rather than the amount of zinc produced since the amount of reduction materials used is more directly dependent on the amount of EAF dust consumed. Since only a portion of emissive zinc production facilities consume EAF dust, the emission factor based on zinc production is applied to the non-EAF dust consuming facilities while the emission factor based on EAF dust consumption is applied to EAF dust consuming facilities. The Waelz kiln emission factor based on the amount of zinc produced was developed based on the amount of metallurgical coke consumed for non-energy purposes per ton of zinc produced (i.e., 1.19 metric tons coke/metric ton zinc produced) (Viklund-White 2000), and the following equation: 26 EF Waelz Kiln = 1.19 metric tons coke 0.85 metric tons C × metric tons zinc metric tons coke × 3.67 metric tons CO 2 = 3.70 metric tons CO 2 metric tons C metric tons zinc 27 28 29 The Waelz kiln emission factor based on the amount of EAF dust consumed was developed based on the amount of metallurgical coke consumed per ton of EAF dust consumed (i.e., 0.4 metric tons coke/metric ton EAF dust consumed) (Viklund-White 2000), and the following equation: 51 EPA has not integrated aggregated facility-level Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP) information to inform these estimates. The aggregated information (e.g., activity data and emissions) associated with Zinc Production did not meet criteria to shield underlying confidential business information (CBI) from public disclosure. Industrial Processes and Product Use 4-87

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    a Emissions from Wood Biomass and E

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    Cement Production 33.3 45.9 32.0 35

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    Total 1,862.5 2,441.6 2,197.3 2,059

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    Total Emissions 6,366.7 7,315.6 6,7

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    N2O 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 Oth

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    International Bunker Fuels a 0.2 0.

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    U.S. Territories a 28.0 50.1 41.7 4

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    Fuel Oil 27.2 45.6 36.7 37.6 37.1 3

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    Coal b 1,653.7 1,596.3 1,809.1 -3%

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    Gas/Waste Product 1990 2005 2011 20

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    Activity 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2

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    Previous Estimated Emissions from S

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    Emissions (w/o Plunger) (MT) 372,28

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    Reciprocating Compressors 64,413 64

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    CO2 206.8 189.9 172.9 169.6 171.5 1

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    New Mexico 70,608 52,250 12.0 0.263

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    C Storage Factor, Proportion of Ini

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    2013 321 10,536 2014 323 10,613 201

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