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DRAFT Inventory of U.S Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

2017_complete_report

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Recalculations Discussion Emissions from 2011 through 2014 were updated to reflect updated emissions reporting in EPA’s GHGRP. Further, gas-process specific non-reporter emission factors were updated to reflect the historical changes in GHGRP data as well as updated manufacturing utilizations. Planned Improvements This Inventory contains estimates of seven fluorinated gases for semiconductor manufacturing and N 2O. However, other fluorinated gases (e.g., C 5F 8) are used in relatively smaller amounts. Previously, emissions data for these other fluorinated gases was not reported through the EPA Partnership. Through EPA's GHGRP, these data, as well as heat transfer fluid emission data, are available. Therefore, a point of consideration for future Inventory reports is the inclusion of other fluorinated gases, and emissions from heat transfer fluid (HTF) loss to the atmosphere. Emissions from fluorinated heat transfer fluids, of which some are liquid perfluorinated compounds, are presented in Table 4-91 for informational purposes for 2011 through 2015, and are based upon GHGRP-reported emissions. The GHGRP-reported HTF emissions along with WFF database could be used to develop emission factors for identified subpopulations. Further research needs to be done to determine if the same subpopulations identified in developing new emission factors for F-GHGs are applicable or new subpopulations have to be studied as HTFs are used primarily by manufacturers of wafer size 300 mm and above. Currently, HTF emissions have only been estimated for those years for which there was reported data available. In the future, back casting could be applied to determine HTF emissions for the semiconductor industry prior to 2011. Along with more emissions information for semiconductor manufacturing, EPA’s GHGRP requires the reporting of emissions from other types of electronics manufacturing, including micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMs), flat panel displays, and photovoltaic cells. There currently are five MEMs manufacturers and no flat panel displays and photovoltaic cell manufacturing facilities reporting to EPA’s GHGRP. The MEMs manufacturers also report emissions from semiconductor manufacturing and do not distinguish between these two types of manufacturing in their report; thus, emissions from MEMs manufacturers are included in the totals here. Emissions from manufacturing of flat panel displays and photovoltaic cells may be included in future Inventory reports; however, estimation methodologies would need to be developed. The Inventory methodology uses data reported through the EPA Partnership (for earlier years) and EPA’s GHGRP (for later years) to extrapolate the emissions of the non-reporting population. While these techniques are well developed, the understanding of the relationship between the reporting and non-reporting populations is limited. Further analysis of the reporting and non-reporting populations could aid in the accuracy of the non-reporting population extrapolation in future years. The Inventory uses utilization from two different sources for various time periods–SEMI to develop PEVM and to estimate non-Partner emissions for the period 1995 to 2010 and U.S. Census Bureau for 2011 through 2014. SEMI reported global capacity utilization for manufacturers through 2011. U.S. Census Bureau capacity utilization include U.S. semiconductor manufacturers as well as assemblers. Further analysis on the impacts of using a new and different source of utilization data could prove to be useful in better understanding of industry trends and impacts of utilization data sources on historical emission estimates. Starting with 2014 reported emissions, EPA’s GHGRP required semiconductor manufacturers to apply updated emission factors to estimate their F-GHG emissions. EPA is planning to investigate whether and how much this change may have affected the trend seen in estimated emissions between 2013 and 2014. 4-100 DRAFT Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2015

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 4.23 Substitution of Ozone Depleting Substances (IPCC Source Category 2F) Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are used as alternatives to several classes of ozonedepleting substances (ODSs) that are being phased out under the terms of the Montreal Protocol and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. 70 Ozone depleting substances—chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform, and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs)—are used in a variety of industrial applications including refrigeration and air conditioning equipment, solvent cleaning, foam production, sterilization, fire extinguishing, and aerosols. Although HFCs and PFCs are not harmful to the stratospheric ozone layer, they are potent greenhouse gases. Emission estimates for HFCs and PFCs used as substitutes for ODSs are provided in Table 4-94 and Table 4-95. Table 4-94: Emissions of HFCs and PFCs from ODS Substitutes (MMT CO2 Eq.) Gas 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 HFC-23 + + + + + + + HFC-32 + 0.3 3.4 4.4 5.4 6.4 7.5 HFC-125 + 9.5 37.2 43.6 49.9 55.9 61.9 HFC-134a + 73.4 72.5 67.8 62.8 60.8 59.1 HFC-143a + 9.4 22.5 24.4 26.0 27.2 28.0 HFC-236fa + 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.3 CF4 + + + + + + + Others a 0.3 5.9 8.2 8.6 9.0 9.5 10.8 Total 0.3 99.8 145.4 150.2 154.7 161.3 168.6 + Does not exceed 0.05 MMT CO2 Eq. a Others include HFC-152a, HFC-227ea, HFC-245fa, HFC-43-10mee, HFO-1234yf, C4F10, and PFC/PFPEs, the latter being a proxy for a diverse collection of PFCs and perfluoropolyethers (PFPEs) employed for solvent applications. For estimating purposes, the GWP value used for PFC/PFPEs was based upon C6F14. Note: Totals may not sum due to independent rounding. 12 13 14 15 16 Table 4-95: Emissions of HFCs and PFCs from ODS Substitution (Metric Tons) Gas 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 HFC-23 + 1 2 2 2 3 3 HFC-32 + 511 5,032 6,479 7,985 9,475 11,052 HFC-125 + 2,701 10,626 12,445 14,259 15,974 17,686 HFC-134a + 51,304 50,731 47,396 43,906 42,495 41,296 HFC-143a + 2,108 5,034 5,451 5,813 6,088 6,273 HFC-236fa + 125 147 148 151 148 135 CF4 + 2 4 4 4 4 4 Others a M M M M M M M + Does not exceed 0.5 MT. M (Mixture of Gases) a Others include HFC-152a, HFC-227ea, HFC-245fa, HFC-43-10mee, HFO-1234yf, C4F10, and PFC/PFPEs, the latter being a proxy for a diverse collection of PFCs and perfluoropolyethers (PFPEs) employed for solvent applications. In 1990 and 1991, the only significant emissions of HFCs and PFCs as substitutes to ODSs were relatively small amounts of HFC-152a—used as an aerosol propellant and also a component of the refrigerant blend R-500 used in chillers—and HFC-134a in refrigeration end-uses. Beginning in 1992, HFC-134a was used in growing amounts as a 70 [42 U.S.C § 7671, CAA Title VI] Industrial Processes and Product Use 4-101

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    Cement Production 33.3 45.9 32.0 35

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    Total 1,862.5 2,441.6 2,197.3 2,059

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    Total Emissions 6,366.7 7,315.6 6,7

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    N2O 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 Oth

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    Activity 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2

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    Previous Estimated Emissions from S

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    Emissions (w/o Plunger) (MT) 372,28

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    2013 321 10,536 2014 323 10,613 201

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Quality manual for the greenhouse gas inventory. Version 1.
D - Inventory of Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Abengoa
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Heavy-Duty Trucks
Use of Models and Facility-Level Data in Greenhouse Gas Inventories
Building trust in greenhouse gas inventories from the United ... - WWF
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory for Chapel Hill Street Lights ...
international maritime transport and greenhouse gas emissions - IMO
2009 Corporate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory - the Town of ...
City of Richmond 2008 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory
Inventory of New York City Greenhouse Gas Emissions - NYC.gov
Expert Meeting on Uncertainty and Validation of Emission Inventories
County of San Diego 2005/2006 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Transportation - Center for ...
Aspen-Pitkin County Airport Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory ...
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Agriculture and Forestry: A ...
Greenhouse Gas Emission Policies Is There a Way ... - Castalia
Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Septic ... - Geoflow
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Report - Cal Poly Pomona
GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS - The Sallan Foundation
Greenhouse gas emissions from production of imported and ... - Inra
Reducing U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Center for Climate and ...
Annual European Community greenhouse gas inventory 1990-2003
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Transportation - Center for ...
National Greenhouse Gas Inventories - US Environmental ...
RE-CALCULATING THE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS ... - Inra
Corporate and Community Update for Greenhouse Gas Emissions ...