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DRAFT Inventory of U.S Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

2017_complete_report

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 refrigerant in motor vehicle air-conditioners and in refrigerant blends such as R-404A. 71 In 1993, the use of HFCs in foam production began, and in 1994 ODS substitutes for halons entered widespread use in the United States as halon production was phased-out. In 1995, these compounds also found applications as solvents. The use and subsequent emissions of HFCs and PFCs as ODS substitutes has been increasing from small amounts in 1990 to 168.6 MMT CO 2 Eq. emitted in 2015. This increase was in large part the result of efforts to phase out CFCs and other ODSs in the United States. In the short term, this trend is expected to continue, and will likely continue over the next decade as HCFCs, which are interim substitutes in many applications, are themselves phased-out under the provisions of the Copenhagen Amendments to the Montreal Protocol. Improvements in the technologies associated with the use of these gases and the introduction of alternative gases and technologies, however, may help to offset this anticipated increase in emissions. Table 4-96 presents emissions of HFCs and PFCs as ODS substitutes by end-use sector for 1990 through 2015. The end-use sectors that contributed the most toward emissions of HFCs and PFCs as ODS substitutes in 2015 include refrigeration and air-conditioning (144.9 MMT CO 2 Eq., or approximately 86 percent), aerosols (11.0 MMT CO 2 Eq., or approximately 7 percent), and foams (9.4 MMT CO 2 Eq., or approximately 6 percent). Within the refrigeration and air-conditioning end-use sector, motor vehicle air-conditioning was the highest emitting end-use (38.3 MMT CO 2 Eq.), followed by refrigerated retail food and refrigerated transport. Each of the end-use sectors is described in more detail below. Table 4-96: Emissions of HFCs and PFCs from ODS Substitutes (MMT CO2 Eq.) by Sector Sector 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Refrigeration/Air + 87.8 125.9 130.0 133.6 139.2 144.9 Conditioning Aerosols 0.3 7.6 10.1 10.3 10.5 10.8 11.0 Foams + 2.1 6.4 6.9 7.5 8.0 9.4 Solvents + 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.8 Fire Protection + 0.7 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.5 Total 0.3 99.8 145.4 150.2 154.7 161.3 168.6 + Does not exceed 0.05 MMT CO2 Eq. Note: Totals may not sum due to independent rounding. Refrigeration/Air Conditioning The refrigeration and air-conditioning sector includes a wide variety of equipment types that have historically used CFCs or HCFCs. End-uses within this sector include motor vehicle air-conditioning, retail food refrigeration, refrigerated transport (e.g., ship holds, truck trailers, railway freight cars), household refrigeration, residential and small commercial air-conditioning and heat pumps, chillers (large comfort cooling), cold storage facilities, and industrial process refrigeration (e.g., systems used in food processing, chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, oil and gas, and metallurgical industries). As the ODS phaseout has taken effect, most equipment has been retrofitted or replaced to use HFC-based substitutes. Common HFCs in use today in refrigeration/air-conditioning equipment are HFC-134a, R-410A, 72 R-404A, and R-507A. 73 Lower -GWP options such as HFO-1234yf in motor vehicle airconditioning, R-717 (ammonia) in cold storage and industrial applications, and R-744 (carbon dioxide) and HFC/HFO blends in retail food refrigeration, are also being used. These refrigerants are emitted to the atmosphere during equipment manufacture and operation (as a result of component failure, leaks, and purges), as well as at servicing and disposal events. Aerosols Aerosol propellants are used in metered dose inhalers (MDIs) and a variety of personal care products and technical/specialty products (e.g., duster sprays and safety horns). Many pharmaceutical companies that produce MDIs—a type of inhaled therapy used to treat asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease—have replaced 71 R-404A contains HFC-125, HFC-143a, and HFC-134a. 72 R-410A contains HFC-32 and HFC-125. 73 R-507A, also called R-507, contains HFC-125 and HFC-143a. 4-102 DRAFT Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2015

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 the use of CFCs with HFC-propellant alternatives. The earliest ozone-friendly MDIs were produced with HFC-134a, but the industry has started to use HFC-227ea as well. Conversely, since the use of CFC propellants was banned in 1978, most non-medical consumer aerosol products have not transitioned to HFCs, but to “not-in-kind” technologies, such as solid roll-on deodorants and finger-pump sprays. The transition away from ODS in specialty aerosol products has also led to the introduction of non-fluorocarbon alternatives (e.g., hydrocarbon propellants) in certain applications, in addition to HFC-134a or HFC-152a. Other low-GWP options such as HFO-1234ze(E) are being used as well. These propellants are released into the atmosphere as the aerosol products are used. Foams Chlorofluorocarbons and HCFCs have traditionally been used as foam blowing agents to produce polyurethane (PU), polystyrene, polyolefin, and phenolic foams, which are used in a wide variety of products and applications. Since the Montreal Protocol, flexible PU foams as well as other types of foam, such as polystyrene sheet, polyolefin, and phenolic foam, have transitioned almost completely away from fluorocompounds, into alternatives such as CO 2 and hydrocarbons. The majority of rigid PU foams have transitioned to HFCs—primarily HFC-134a and HFC- 245fa. Today, these HFCs are used to produce PU appliance, PU commercial refrigeration, PU spray, and PU panel foams—used in refrigerators, vending machines, roofing, wall insulation, garage doors, and cold storage applications. In addition, HFC-152a, HFC-134a and CO 2 are used to produce polystyrene sheet/board foam, which is used in food packaging and building insulation. Low-GWP fluorinated foam blowing agents in use include HFO- 1234ze(E) and -1233zd(E). Emissions of blowing agents occur when the foam is manufactured as well as during the foam lifetime and at foam disposal, depending on the particular foam type. Solvents Chlorofluorocarbons, methyl chloroform (1,1,1-trichloroethane or TCA), and to a lesser extent carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4) were historically used as solvents in a wide range of cleaning applications, including precision, electronics, and metal cleaning. Since their phaseout, metal cleaning end-use applications have primarily transitioned to nonfluorocarbon solvents and not-in-kind processes. The precision and electronics cleaning end-uses have transitioned in part to high-GWP gases, due to their high reliability, excellent compatibility, good stability, low toxicity, and selective solvency. These applications rely on HFC-43-10mee, HFC-365mfc, HFC-245fa, and to a lesser extent, PFCs. Electronics cleaning involves removing flux residue that remains after a soldering operation for printed circuit boards and other contamination-sensitive electronics applications. Precision cleaning may apply to either electronic components or to metal surfaces, and is characterized by products, such as disk drives, gyroscopes, and optical components, that require a high level of cleanliness and generally have complex shapes, small clearances, and other cleaning challenges. The use of solvents yields fugitive emissions of these HFCs and PFCs. Fire Protection Fire protection applications include portable fire extinguishers (“streaming” applications) that originally used halon 1211, and total flooding applications that originally used halon 1301, as well as some halon 2402. Since the production and import of virgin halons were banned in the United States in 1994, the halon replacement agent of choice in the streaming sector has been dry chemical, although HFC-236fa is also used to a limited extent. In the total flooding sector, HFC-227ea has emerged as the primary replacement for halon 1301 in applications that require clean agents. Other HFCs, such as HFC-23 and HFC-125, are used in smaller amounts. The majority of HFC-227ea in total flooding systems is used to protect essential electronics, as well as in civil aviation, military mobile weapons systems, oil/gas/other process industries, and merchant shipping. Fluoroketone FK-5-1-12 is also used as a low- GWP option and 2-BTP is being considered. As fire protection equipment is tested or deployed, emissions of these HFCs occur. Methodology A detailed Vintaging Model of ODS-containing equipment and products was used to estimate the actual—versus potential—emissions of various ODS substitutes, including HFCs and PFCs. The name of the model refers to the fact that it tracks the use and emissions of various compounds for the annual “vintages” of new equipment that enter service in each end-use. The Vintaging Model predicts ODS and ODS substitute use in the United States based on Industrial Processes and Product Use 4-103

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    Forest Land Remaining Forest Land:

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    a Emissions from Wood Biomass and E

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    1 2 3 4 Overall, in 2015, waste act

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    Cement Production 33.3 45.9 32.0 35

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    Total 1,862.5 2,441.6 2,197.3 2,059

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    Total Emissions 6,366.7 7,315.6 6,7

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    N2O 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 Oth

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    International Bunker Fuels a 0.2 0.

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    Fuel Oil 27.2 45.6 36.7 37.6 37.1 3

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    Coal b 1,653.7 1,596.3 1,809.1 -3%

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    1 Table 3-20: Adjusted Consumption

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    Gas/Waste Product 1990 2005 2011 20

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    Activity 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2

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    Previous Estimated Emissions from S

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    Emissions (w/o Plunger) (MT) 372,28

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    New Mexico 70,608 52,250 12.0 0.263

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    C Storage Factor, Proportion of Ini

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    1 Table 7-2: Emissions from Waste (

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Table 7-6 pres

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    2013 321 10,536 2014 323 10,613 201

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    1 2 Table 7-16: Approach 2 Quantita

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 EF i = emissio

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    a Miscellaneous includes TSDFs (Tre

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    Enteric Fermentation NC NC + NC + (

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