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DRAFT Inventory of U.S Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

2017_complete_report

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Water management is arguably the most important factor affecting CH 4 emissions, and improved water management has the largest potential to mitigate emissions (Yan et al. 2009). Upland rice fields are not flooded, and therefore do not produce CH 4, but large amounts of CH 4 can be emitted in continuously irrigated fields, which is the most common practices in the United States (USDA 2012). Single or multiple aeration events with drainage of a field during the growing season can significantly reduce these emissions (Wassmann et al. 2000a), but drainage may also increase N 2O emissions. Deepwater rice fields (i.e., fields with flooding depths greater than one meter, such as natural wetlands) tend to have less living stems reaching the soil, thus reducing the amount of CH 4 transport to the atmosphere through the plant compared to shallow-flooded systems (Sass 2001). Other management practices also influence CH 4 emissions from flooded rice fields including rice residue straw management and application of organic amendments, in addition to cultivar selection due to differences in the amount of root exudates 5 among rice varieties (Neue et al. 1997). These practices influence the amount of organic matter available for methanogenesis, and some practices, such as mulching rice straw or composting organic amendments, can reduce the amount of labile carbon and limit CH 4 emissions (Wassmann et al. 2000b). Fertilization practices also influences CH 4 emissions, particularly the use of fertilizers with sulfate (Wassmann et al. 2000b; Linquist et al. 2012). Other environmental variables also impact the methanogenesis process such as soil temperature and soil type. Soil temperature is an important factor regulating the activity of methanogenic bacteria which in turn affects the rate of CH 4 production. Soil texture influences decomposition of soil organic matter, but is also thought to have an impact on oxidation of CH 4 in the soil (Sass et al. 1994). Rice is currently cultivated in twelve states, including Arkansas, California, Florida, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, New York, South Carolina, Tennessee and Texas. Soil types, rice varieties, and cultivation practices vary across the United States, but most farmers apply fertilizers and do not harvest crop residues. In addition, a second, ratoon rice crop is sometimes grown in the Southeast. Ratoon crops are produced from regrowth of the stubble remaining after the harvest of the first rice crop. Methane emissions from ratoon crops are higher than those from the primary crops due to the increased amount of labile organic matter available for anaerobic decomposition in the form of relatively fresh crop residue straw. Emissions tend to be higher in rice fields if the residues have been in the field for less than 30 days before planting the next rice crop (Lindau and Bollich 1993; IPCC 2006; Wang et al. 2013). Overall, rice cultivation is a minor source of CH 4 emissions in the United States relative to other source categories (see Table 5-10 and Table 5-11). In 2015, CH 4 emissions from rice cultivation were 11.2 MMT CO 2 Eq. (449 kt). Annual emissions fluctuate between 1990 and 2015, and emissions in 2015 represented a 30 percent decrease compared to 1990. Variation in emissions is largely due to differences in the amount of rice harvested areas over time. In Arkansas rice harvested areas increased by 2 percent from 1990 to 2015, while rice harvested area declined in California, Louisiana and Texas by 2 percent, 41 percent and 78 percent respectively (see Table 5-12). Table 5-10: CH4 Emissions from Rice Cultivation (MMT CO2 Eq.) State 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Arkansas 3.3 4.7 4.0 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.8 California 2.0 2.1 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 Florida + 0.1 + + + + + Illinois + + + + + + + Kentucky + + + + + + + Louisiana 6.1 6.5 5.6 3.9 3.9 4.0 3.8 Minnesota + + + + + + + Mississippi 0.6 0.6 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 Missouri 0.3 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 New York + + + + + + + South Carolina + + + + + + + Tennessee + + + + + + + Texas 3.7 2.1 1.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 Total 16.0 16.7 14.1 11.3 11.3 11.4 11.2 5 The roots of rice plants add organic material to the soil through a process called “root exudation.” Root exudation is thought to enhance decomposition of the soil organic matter and release nutrients that the plant can absorb and use to stimulate more production. The amount of root exudate produced by a rice plant over a growing season varies among rice varieties. 5-16 DRAFT Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2015

+ Does not exceed 0.05 MMT CO2 Eq. Note: Totals may not sum due to independent rounding. 1 Table 5-11: CH4 Emissions from Rice Cultivation (kt) State 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Arkansas 132 187 162 151 151 150 150 California 81 82 75 81 81 81 82 Florida + 3 + + + + + Illinois + + + + + + + Kentucky + + + + + + + Louisiana 246 261 226 156 156 159 152 Minnesota 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 Mississippi 23 23 11 19 19 19 19 Missouri 12 22 15 12 12 12 12 New York + + + + + + + South Carolina + + + + + + + Tennessee + + + + + + + Texas 146 86 74 34 34 34 34 Total 641 667 564 453 454 456 449 + Does not exceed 0.5 kt. Note: Totals may not sum due to independent rounding. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Figure 5-2: Total Net Annual CH4 Emissions from Rice Cultivation, 2015 (MMT CO2 Eq./Year) – TO BE UPDATED FOR FINAL INVENTORY REPORT Methodology The methodology used to estimate CH 4 emissions from rice cultivation is based on a combination of IPCC Tier 1 and 3 approaches. The Tier 3 method utilizes a process-based model (DAYCENT) to estimate CH 4 emissions from rice cultivation (Cheng et al. 2013), and has been tested in the United States (See Annex 3.12) and Asia (Cheng et al. 2013, 2014). The model simulates hydrological conditions and thermal regimes, organic matter decomposition, root exudation, rice plant growth and its influence on oxidation of CH 4, as well as CH 4 transport through the plant and via ebullition (Cheng et al. 2013). The method simulates the influence of organic amendments and rice straw management on methanogenesis in the flooded soils. In addition to CH 4 emissions, DAYCENT simulates soil C stock changes and N 2O emissions (Parton et al. 1987 and 1998; Del Grosso et al. 2010), and allows for a seamless set of simulations for crop rotations that include both rice and non-rice crops. The Tier 1 method is applied to estimate CH 4 emissions from rice when grown in rotation with crops that are not simulated by DAYCENT, such as vegetables and perennial/horticultural crops. The Tier 1 method is also used for areas converted between agriculture (i.e., cropland and grassland) and other land uses, such as forest land, wetland, and settlements. In addition, the Tier 1 method is used to estimate CH 4 emissions from organic soils (i.e., Histosols) and from areas with very gravelly, cobbly, or shaley soils (greater than 35 percent by volume). The Tier 3 method using DAYCENT has not been fully tested for estimating emissions associated with these crops and rotations, land uses, as well as organic soils or cobbly, gravelly, and shaley mineral soils. The Tier 1 method for estimating CH 4 emissions from rice production utilizes a default base emission rate and scaling factors (IPCC 2006). The base emission factor represents emissions for continuously flooded fields with no organic amendments. Scaling factors are used to adjust for water management and organic amendments that differ from continuous flooding with no organic amendments. The method accounts for pre-season and growing season flooding; types and amounts of organic amendments; and the number of rice production seasons within a single year (i.e., single cropping, ratooning, etc.). The Tier 1 analysis is implemented in the Agriculture and Land Use National Greenhouse Gas Inventory (ALU) software (Ogle et al. 2016). 6 6 See . Agriculture 5-17

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    a Emissions from Wood Biomass and E

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    Cement Production 33.3 45.9 32.0 35

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    Total 1,862.5 2,441.6 2,197.3 2,059

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    Total Emissions 6,366.7 7,315.6 6,7

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    N2O 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 Oth

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    U.S. Territories a 28.0 50.1 41.7 4

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    Fuel Oil 27.2 45.6 36.7 37.6 37.1 3

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    Coal b 1,653.7 1,596.3 1,809.1 -3%

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    Gas/Waste Product 1990 2005 2011 20

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    Activity 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2

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    Previous Estimated Emissions from S

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    Emissions (w/o Plunger) (MT) 372,28

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    Other Lands Converted Grassland Min

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    New Mexico 70,608 52,250 12.0 0.263

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    C Storage Factor, Proportion of Ini

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    2013 321 10,536 2014 323 10,613 201

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    1 2 Table 7-16: Approach 2 Quantita

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    Enteric Fermentation NC NC + NC + (

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Quality manual for the greenhouse gas inventory. Version 1.
D - Inventory of Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Abengoa
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Heavy-Duty Trucks
Use of Models and Facility-Level Data in Greenhouse Gas Inventories
Building trust in greenhouse gas inventories from the United ... - WWF
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory for Chapel Hill Street Lights ...
international maritime transport and greenhouse gas emissions - IMO
City of Richmond 2008 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory
2009 Corporate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory - the Town of ...
Inventory of New York City Greenhouse Gas Emissions - NYC.gov
Expert Meeting on Uncertainty and Validation of Emission Inventories
County of San Diego 2005/2006 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Transportation - Center for ...
Aspen-Pitkin County Airport Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory ...
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Agriculture and Forestry: A ...
Greenhouse Gas Emission Policies Is There a Way ... - Castalia
Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Septic ... - Geoflow
GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS - The Sallan Foundation
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Report - Cal Poly Pomona
Reducing U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Center for Climate and ...
Greenhouse gas emissions from production of imported and ... - Inra
Annual European Community greenhouse gas inventory 1990-2003
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Transportation - Center for ...
National Greenhouse Gas Inventories - US Environmental ...
RE-CALCULATING THE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS ... - Inra
Corporate and Community Update for Greenhouse Gas Emissions ...