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DRAFT Inventory of U.S Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

2017_complete_report

1 2 Table 6-8: Data

1 2 Table 6-8: Data Sources Used to Determine Land Use and Land Area for the Conterminous United States, Hawaii, and Alaska NRI FIA NLCD Forest Land Conterminous United States Non-Federal • Federal • Hawaii Non-Federal • Federal • Alaska Non-Federal • Federal • Croplands, Grasslands, Other Lands, Settlements, and Wetlands Conterminous United States Non-Federal • Federal • Hawaii Non-Federal • Federal • Alaska Non-Federal • • Federal • • 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 National Resources Inventory For the Inventory, the NRI is the official source of data for land use and land use change on non-federal lands in the conterminous United States and Hawaii (except Forest Land), and is also used to determine the total land base for the conterminous United States and Hawaii. The NRI is a statistically-based survey conducted by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service and is designed to assess soil, water, and related environmental resources on nonfederal lands. The NRI has a stratified multi-stage sampling design, where primary sample units are stratified on the basis of county and township boundaries defined by the United States Public Land Survey (Nusser and Goebel 1997). Within a primary sample unit (typically a 160 acre [64.75 ha] square quarter-section), three sample points are selected according to a restricted randomization procedure. Each point in the survey is assigned an area weight (expansion factor) based on other known areas and land-use information (Nusser and Goebel 1997). The NRI survey utilizes data derived from remote sensing imagery and site visits in order to provide detailed information on land use and management, particularly for Croplands and Grasslands (i.e., agricultural lands), and is used as the basis to account for C stock changes in agricultural lands (except federal Grasslands). The NRI survey was conducted every 5 years between 1982 and 1997, but shifted to annualized data collection in 1998. The land use between five-year periods from 1982 and 1997 are assumed to be the same for a five-year time period if the land use is the same at the beginning and end of the five-year period (Note: most of the data has the same land use at the beginning and end of the five-year periods). If the land use had changed during a five-year period, then the change is assigned at random to one of the five years. For crop histories, years with missing data are estimated based on the sequence of crops grown during years preceding and succeeding a missing year in the NRI history. This gap-filling approach allows for development of a full time series of land-use data for non-federal lands in the conterminous United States and Hawaii. This Inventory incorporates data through 2012 from the NRI. The land use patterns are assumed to remain the same from 2012 through 2015 for this Inventory, but the time series will be updated when new data are released. Forest Inventory and Analysis The FIA program, conducted by the USFS, is another statistically-based survey for the conterminous United States, and the official source of data on Forest Land area and management data for the Inventory. FIA engages in a hierarchical system of sampling, with sampling categorized as Phases 1 through 3, in which sample points for phases are subsets of the previous phase. Phase 1 refers to collection of remotely-sensed data (either aerial photographs or 6-14 DRAFT Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2015

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 satellite imagery) primarily to classify land into forest or non-forest and to identify landscape patterns like fragmentation and urbanization. Phase 2 is the collection of field data on a network of ground plots that enable classification and summarization of area, tree, and other attributes associated with forest-land uses. Phase 3 plots are a subset of Phase 2 plots where data on indicators of forest health are measured. Data from all three phases are also used to estimate C stock changes for Forest Land. Historically, FIA inventory surveys have been conducted periodically, with all plots in a state being measured at a frequency of every five to 14 years. A new national plot design and annual sampling design was introduced by FIA about ten years ago. Most states, though, have only recently been brought into this system. Annualized sampling means that a portion of plots throughout each state is sampled each year, with the goal of measuring all plots once every five years. See Annex 3.13 to see the specific survey data available by state. The most recent year of available data varies state by state (range of most recent data is from 2012 through 2015; see Table A-255). National Land Cover Dataset While the NRI survey sample covers the conterminous United States and Hawaii, land use data are only collected on non-federal lands. In addition, FIA only records data for forest land across the land base in the conterminous United States and a portion of Alaska. 22 Consequently, gaps exist in the land representation when the datasets are combined, such as federal grassland operated by Bureau of Land Management (BLM), USDA, and National Park Service, as well as Alaska. 23 The NLCD is used as a supplementary database to account for land use on federal lands in the conterminous United States and Hawaii, in addition to federal and non-federal lands in Alaska. NLCD products provide land-cover for 1992, 2001, 2006, and 2011 in the conterminous United States (Homer et al. 2007), and also for Alaska in 2001 and 2011 and Hawaii in 2001. For the conterminous United States, the NLCD data have been further processed to derive Land Cover Change Products for 2001, 2006, and 2011 (Fry et al. 2011; Homer et al. 2007; Homer et al. 2015). A Land Cover Change Product is also available for Alaska from 2001 to 2011. A NLCD change product is not available for Hawaii because data are only available for one year, i.e., 2001. The NLCD products are based primarily on Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery at a 30 meter resolution, and contain 21 categories of land-cover information, which have been aggregated into the 36 IPCC land-use categories for the conterminous United States and Alaska, and into the six IPCC land-use categories for Hawaii. The aggregated maps of IPCC land-use categories were used in combination with the NRI database to represent land use and land-use change for federal lands, as well as federal and non-federal lands in Alaska. Specifically, NRI survey locations designated as federal lands were assigned a land use/land use change category based on the NLCD maps that had been aggregated into the IPCC categories. This analysis addressed shifts in land ownership across years between federal or non-federal classes as represented in the NRI survey (i.e., the ownership is classified for each survey location in the NRI). The sources of these additional data are discussed in subsequent sections of the NIR. Managed Land Designation Lands are designated as managed in the United States based on the definition provided earlier in this section. In order to apply the definition in an analysis of managed land, the following criteria are used: All Croplands and Settlements are designated as managed so only Grassland, Forest Land or Other Lands may be designated as unmanaged land; All Forest Lands with active fire protection are considered managed; All Grassland is considered managed at a county scale if there are livestock in the county; 24 Other areas are considered managed if accessible based on the proximity to roads and other transportation corridors, and/or infrastructure; 22 FIA does collect some data on non-forest land use, but these are held in regional databases versus the national database. The status of these data is being investigated. 23 The FIA and NRI survey programs also do not include U.S. Territories with the exception of non-federal lands in Puerto Rico, which are included in the NRI survey. Furthermore, NLCD does not include coverage for all U.S. Territories. 24 Assuming all Grasslands are grazed in a county with even very small livestock populations is a conservative assumption about human impacts on Grasslands. Currently, detailed information on grazing at sub-county scales is not available for the United States to make a finer delineation of managed land. Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry 6-15

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 irreversible accumulati

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    Forest Land Remaining Forest Land:

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    1 2 3 Figure ES-15: U.S. Greenhouse

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    a Emission estimates reported in th

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    a Emissions from Wood Biomass and E

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    Electrical Transmission and Distrib

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    CH4 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 Pet

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    1 2 Table 2-8: U.S. Greenhouse Gas

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    1 2 3 4 Overall, in 2015, waste act

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    Cement Production 33.3 45.9 32.0 35

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    Total 1,862.5 2,441.6 2,197.3 2,059

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    Total Emissions 6,366.7 7,315.6 6,7

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    N2O 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 Oth

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    International Bunker Fuels a 0.2 0.

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    U.S. Territories a 28.0 50.1 41.7 4

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    Fuel Oil 27.2 45.6 36.7 37.6 37.1 3

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    Medium- and Heavy-Duty 0.5 0.9 0.7

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    Coal b 1,653.7 1,596.3 1,809.1 -3%

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    1 Table 3-20: Adjusted Consumption

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    Gas/Waste Product 1990 2005 2011 20

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    Activity 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2

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    Previous Estimated Emissions from S

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    Emissions (w/o Plunger) (MT) 372,28

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    CO2 206.8 189.9 172.9 169.6 171.5 1

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    1 Table 4-89: CO2 Emissions from Zi

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    New Mexico 70,608 52,250 12.0 0.263

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    C Storage Factor, Proportion of Ini

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    2013 321 10,536 2014 323 10,613 201

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