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DRAFT Inventory of U.S Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

2017_complete_report

1 2 Figure 6-6: Total

1 2 Figure 6-6: Total Net Annual CO2 Flux for Mineral Soils under Agricultural Management within States, 2015, Grassland Remaining Grassland 3 4 5 6 Figure 6-7: Total Net Annual CO2 Flux for Organic Soils under Agricultural Management within States, 2015, Grassland Remaining Grassland 7 8 6-64 DRAFT Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2015

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Methodology The following section includes a brief description of the methodology used to estimate changes in soil C stocks for Grassland Remaining Grassland, including: (1) agricultural land-use and management activities on mineral soils; and (2) agricultural land-use and management activities on organic soils. Further elaboration on the methodologies and data used to estimate stock changes from mineral and organic soils are provided in the Cropland Remaining Cropland section and Annex 3.12. Soil C stock changes are estimated for Grassland Remaining Grassland on non-federal lands according to land use histories recorded in the 2012 USDA NRI survey (USDA-NRCS 2015). Land-use and some management information (e.g., grass type, soil attributes, and irrigation) were originally collected for each NRI survey location on a 5-year cycle beginning in 1982. In 1998, the NRI program began collecting annual data, and the annual data are currently available through 2012 (USDA-NRCS 2015). NRI survey locations are classified as Grassland Remaining Grassland in a given year between 1990 and 2012 if the land use had been grassland for 20 years. NRI survey locations are classified according to land-use histories starting in 1979, and consequently the classifications are based on less than 20 years from 1990 to 1998. This may have led to an overestimation of Grassland Remaining Grassland in the early part of the time series to the extent that some areas are converted to grassland prior between 1971 and 1978. For federal lands, the land use history is derived from land cover changes in the National Land Cover Dataset (Homer et al. 2007; Fry et al. 2011; Homer et al. 2015). Mineral Soil Carbon Stock Changes An IPCC Tier 3 model-based approach (Ogle et al. 2010) is applied to estimate C stock changes for most mineral soils in Grassland Remaining Grassland. The C stock changes for the remaining soils are estimated with an IPCC Tier 2 method (Ogle et al. 2003), including gravelly, cobbly, or shaley soils (greater than 35 percent by volume) and additional stock changes associated with sewage sludge amendments. Tier 3 Approach Mineral SOC stocks and stock changes for Grassland Remaining Grassland are estimated using the DAYCENT biogeochemical 50 model (Parton et al. 1998; Del Grosso et al. 2001, 2011), as described in Cropland Remaining Cropland. The DAYCENT model utilizes the soil C modeling framework developed in the Century model (Parton et al. 1987, 1988, 1994; Metherell et al. 1993), but has been refined to simulate dynamics at a daily time-step. Historical land-use patterns and irrigation histories are simulated with DAYCENT based on the 2012 USDA NRI survey (USDA-NRCS 2015). Frequency and rates of manure application to grassland during 1997 are estimated from data compiled by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) (Edmonds, et al. 2003), and then adjusted using county-level estimates of manure available for application in other years. Specifically, county-scale ratios of manure available for application to soils in other years relative to 1997 are used to adjust the area amended with manure (see Cropland Remaining Cropland section and Annex 3.12 for further details). Greater availability of managed manure nitrogen (N) relative to 1997 is, thus, assumed to increase the area amended with manure, while reduced availability of manure N relative to 1997 is assumed to reduce the amended area. The amount of manure produced by each livestock type is calculated for managed and unmanaged waste management systems based on methods described in Section 5.2 - Manure Management and Annex 3.11. Manure N deposition from grazing animals (i.e., PRP manure) is an input to the DAYCENT model, and the remainder is deposited on federal lands (i.e., the amount that is not included in DAYCENT simulations is assumed to be applied on federal grasslands). Carbon stocks and 95 percent confidence intervals are estimated for each year between 1990 and 2012 using the NRI survey data, which is available through 2012. C stock change rates from 2013 to 2015 are assumed to be similar to 2012 for this Inventory, but the areas may have changed through the process in which the NRI survey data are reconciled with the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) survey data and the National Land Cover Dataset (Homer et al. 2007; Fry et al. 2011; Homer et al. 2015). This process ensures that the areas of Forest Land Remaining Forest Land and Land Converted to Forest Land are consistent in all three datasets, and leads to some modification of other lands use areas to ensure the total land area does not change. For example, if the FIA estimate less Grassland Converted to Forest Land than the NRI, then the amount of area for this land use conversion 50 Biogeochemical cycles are the flow of chemical elements and compounds between living organisms and the physical environment. Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry 6-65

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    Residential 338.3 357.8 325.5 282.5

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 irreversible accumulati

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    Forest Land Remaining Forest Land:

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    1 2 3 Figure ES-15: U.S. Greenhouse

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    1 Figure 1-1: National Inventory Ar

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    N2O Emissions from Adipic Acid Prod

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    a Emission estimates reported in th

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    1 3.10. Methodology for Estimating

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    1 2 Figure 2-2: Annual Percent Chan

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 gas for electricity

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    a Emissions from Wood Biomass and E

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    Electrical Transmission and Distrib

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    CH4 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 Pet

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    1 Table 2-7: Emissions from Agricul

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    1 2 Table 2-8: U.S. Greenhouse Gas

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    1 2 3 4 Overall, in 2015, waste act

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    Cement Production 33.3 45.9 32.0 35

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    Total 1,862.5 2,441.6 2,197.3 2,059

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    Total Emissions 6,366.7 7,315.6 6,7

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    N2O 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 Oth

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    International Bunker Fuels a 0.2 0.

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    1 Table 3-4: CO2, CH4, and N2O Emis

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    1 Figure 3-3: 2015 U.S. Energy Cons

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    U.S. Territories a 28.0 50.1 41.7 4

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    Fuel Oil 27.2 45.6 36.7 37.6 37.1 3

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    Medium- and Heavy-Duty 0.5 0.9 0.7

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    1 2 Figure 3-15: U.S. Energy Consum

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    Coal b 1,653.7 1,596.3 1,809.1 -3%

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    1 Table 3-20: Adjusted Consumption

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    Gas/Waste Product 1990 2005 2011 20

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    Activity 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2

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    Previous Estimated Emissions from S

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    Emissions (w/o Plunger) (MT) 372,28

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    Reciprocating Compressors 64,413 64

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    1 Table 3-72: Woody Biomass Consump

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    CO2 206.8 189.9 172.9 169.6 171.5 1

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    2012 13.8 13,785 2013 14.0 14,028 2

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    1 2 3 MMT CO 2 Eq. (10,828 kt) (see

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    1 Table 4-89: CO2 Emissions from Zi

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    Note that the relative uncertainty

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    + Does not exceed 0.05 MMT CO2 Eq.

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    a Miscellaneous includes TSDFs (Tre

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    Enteric Fermentation NC NC + NC + (

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Quality manual for the greenhouse gas inventory. Version 1.
D - Inventory of Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Abengoa
Use of Models and Facility-Level Data in Greenhouse Gas Inventories
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory for Chapel Hill Street Lights ...
international maritime transport and greenhouse gas emissions - IMO
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Heavy-Duty Trucks
Building trust in greenhouse gas inventories from the United ... - WWF
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Transportation - Center for ...
Greenhouse Gas Emission Policies Is There a Way ... - Castalia
Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Septic ... - Geoflow
Greenhouse gas emissions from production of imported and ... - Inra
2009 Corporate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory - the Town of ...
Annual European Community greenhouse gas inventory 1990-2003
City of Richmond 2008 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory
Expert Meeting on Uncertainty and Validation of Emission Inventories
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Agriculture and Forestry: A ...
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Report - Cal Poly Pomona
Projection of Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2010 to 2030
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Outlooks and Scenarios, Dolf ... - IPIECA
Amendments to UK greenhouse gas emissions trading ... - Gov.UK
Reducing US Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Center for Climate and ...
Aspen-Pitkin County Airport Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory ...
Annual Danish Informative Inventory Report to UNECE. Emission ...
Danish emission inventories for road transport and other mobile ...
Reducing U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Center for Climate and ...
Typico plc Greenhouse Gas Emissions Report – 2009 - PwC
Predicting Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Flares - SCS Global ...