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DRAFT Inventory of U.S Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

2017_complete_report

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 some peat deposit is lost and CO 2 is emitted from the oxidation of the peat. Since N 2O emissions from saturated ecosystems tend to be low unless there is an exogenous source of nitrogen, N 2O emissions from drained peatlands are dependent on nitrogen mineralization and therefore on soil fertility. Peatlands located on highly fertile soils contain significant amounts of organic nitrogen in inactive form. Draining land in preparation for peat extraction allows bacteria to convert the nitrogen into nitrates which leach to the surface where they are reduced to N 2O, and contributes to the activity of methanogens and methanotrophs (Blodau 2002; Treat et al. 2007 as cited in IPCC 2013). Drainage ditches, which are constructed to drain the land in preparation for peat extraction, also contribute to the flux of CH 4 through in situ production and lateral transfer of CH 4 from the organic soil matrix (IPCC 2013). Off-site CO 2 emissions from managed peatlands occur from waterborne carbon losses and the horticultural and landscaping use of peat. Dissolved organic carbon from water drained off peatlands reacts within aquatic ecosystems and is converted to CO 2, then emitted to the atmosphere (Billet et al. 2004 as cited in IPCC 2013). During the horticultural and landscaping use of peat, nutrient-poor (but fertilizer-enriched) peat tends to be used in bedding plants and in greenhouse and plant nursery production, whereas nutrient-rich (but relatively coarse) peat is used directly in landscaping, athletic fields, golf courses, and plant nurseries. Most (nearly 94 percent) of the CO 2 emissions from peat occur off-site, as the peat is processed and sold to firms which, in the United States, use it predominantly for the aforementioned horticultural and landscaping purposes. Total emissions from Peatlands Remaining Peatlands were estimated to be 0.8 MMT CO 2 Eq. in 2015 (see Table 6-44) comprising 0.8 MMT CO 2 Eq. (763 kt) of CO 2, 0.001 MMT CO 2 Eq. (0.002 kt) of N 2O, and 0.004 MMT CO 2 Eq. (0.16 kt) of CH 4. Total emissions in 2015 were about 2 percent less than total emissions in 2014. Peat production in Alaska in 2015 was not reported in Alaska’s Mineral Industry 2014 report. However, peat production reported in the lower 48 states in 2015 was two percent less than in 2014, resulting in a decrease in total emissions for the 48 states and Alaska from Peatlands Remaining Peatlands in 2015 compared to 2014. Total emissions from Peatlands Remaining Peatlands have fluctuated between 0.8 and 1.3 MMT CO 2 Eq. across the time series with a decreasing trend from 1990 until 1993, followed by an increasing trend until reaching peak emissions in 2000. After 2000, emissions generally decreased until 2006 and then increased until 2009. The trend reversed in 2009 and total emissions have generally decreased between 2009 and 2015. Carbon dioxide emissions from Peatlands Remaining Peatlands have fluctuated between 0.8 and 1.3 MMT CO 2 across the time series, and these emissions drive the trends in total emissions. Methane and N 2O emissions remained close to zero across the time series. Nitrous oxide emissions showed a decreasing trend from 1990 until 1995, followed by an increasing trend through 2001. Nitrous oxide emissions decreased between 2001 and 2006, followed by a leveling off between 2008 and 2010, and a general decline between 2011 and 2015. Methane emissions decreased from 1990 until 1995, followed by an increasing trend through 2000, a period of fluctuation through 2010, and a general decline between 2010 and 2015. Table 6-44: Emissions from Peatlands Remaining Peatlands (MMT CO2 Eq.) Gas 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 CO2 1.1 1.1 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 Off-site 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7 On-site 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 + 0.1 + N2O (On-site) + + + + + + + CH4 (On-site) + + + + + + + Total 1.1 1.1 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 + Does not exceed 0.05 MMT CO2 Eq. Note: These numbers are based on U.S. production data in accordance with Tier 1 guidelines, which does not take into account imports, exports, and stockpiles (i.e., apparent consumption). Off-site N2O emissions are not estimated to avoid double-counting N2O emitted from the fertilizer that the peat is mixed with prior to horticultural use (see IPCC 2006). Totals may not sum due to independent rounding. 35 Table 6-45: Emissions from Peatlands Remaining Peatlands (kt) Gas 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 CO2 1,055 1,101 926 812 770 775 763 Off-site 985 1,030 866 760 720 725 713 6-78 DRAFT Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2015

On-site 70 71 60 53 50 50 49 N2O (On-site) + + + + + + + CH4 (On-site) + + + + + + + + Does not exceed 0.5 kt Note: These numbers are based on U.S. production data in accordance with Tier 1 guidelines, which does not take into account imports, exports, and stockpiles (i.e., apparent consumption). Off-site N2O emissions are not estimated to avoid double-counting N2O emitted from the fertilizer that the peat is mixed with prior to horticultural use (see IPCC 2006). Totals may not sum due to independent rounding. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Methodology Off-Site CO2 Emissions Carbon dioxide emissions from domestic peat production were estimated using a Tier 1 methodology consistent with IPCC (2006). Off-site CO 2 emissions from Peatlands Remaining Peatlands were calculated by apportioning the annual weight of peat produced in the United States (Table 6-46) into peat extracted from nutrient-rich deposits and peat extracted from nutrient-poor deposits using annual percentage-by-weight figures. These nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor production values were then multiplied by the appropriate default C fraction conversion factor taken from IPCC (2006) in order to obtain off-site emission estimates. For the lower 48 states, both annual percentages of peat type by weight and domestic peat production data were sourced from estimates and industry statistics provided in the Minerals Yearbook and Mineral Commodity Summaries from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS 1995 through 2015; USGS 2016). To develop these data, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS; U.S. Bureau of Mines prior to 1997) obtained production and use information by surveying domestic peat producers. On average, about 75 percent of the peat operations respond to the survey; and USGS estimates data for non-respondents on the basis of prior-year production levels (Apodaca 2011). The Alaska estimates rely on reported peat production from the annual Alaska’s Mineral Industry reports (DGGS 1993 through 2015). Similar to the U.S. Geological Survey, the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) solicits voluntary reporting of peat production from producers for the Alaska’s Mineral Industry report. However, the report does not estimate production for the non-reporting producers, resulting in larger inter-annual variation in reported peat production from Alaska depending on the number of producers who report in a given year (Szumigala 2011). In addition, in both the lower 48 states and Alaska, large variations in peat production can also result from variations in precipitation and the subsequent changes in moisture conditions, since unusually wet years can hamper peat production. The methodology estimates Alaska emissions separately from lower 48 emissions because the state conducts its own mineral survey and reports peat production by volume, rather than by weight (Table 6-47). However, volume production data were used to calculate off-site CO 2 emissions from Alaska applying the same methodology but with volume-specific C fraction conversion factors from IPCC (2006). 63 Peat production was not reported for 2015 in Alaska’s Mineral Industry 2014 report (DGGS 2015); and reliable data are not available beyond 2012, so Alaska’s peat production in 2013, 2014, and 2015 (reported in cubic yards) was assumed to be equal to the 2012 value. Consistent with IPCC (2013) guidelines, off-site CO 2 emissions from dissolved organic carbon were estimated based on the total area of peatlands managed for peat extraction, which is calculated from production data using the methodology described in the On-Site CO 2 Emissions section below. CO 2 emissions from dissolved organic C were estimated by multiplying the area of peatlands by the default emissions factor for dissolved organic C provided in IPCC (2013). The apparent consumption of peat, which includes production plus imports minus exports plus the decrease in stockpiles, in the United States is over times the amount of domestic peat production. However, consistent with the Tier 1 method whereby only domestic peat production is accounted for when estimating off-site emissions, off-site CO 2 emissions from the use of peat not produced within the United States are not included in the Inventory. The United States has largely imported peat from Canada for horticultural purposes; from 2011 to 2014, imports of sphagnum moss (nutrient-poor) peat from Canada represented 97 percent of total U.S. peat imports (USGS 2016). 63 Peat produced from Alaska was assumed to be nutrient poor; as is the case in Canada, “where deposits of high-quality [but nutrient poor] sphagnum moss are extensive” (USGS 2008). Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry 6-79

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    Forest Land Remaining Forest Land:

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    a Emission estimates reported in th

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    a Emissions from Wood Biomass and E

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    CH4 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 Pet

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    1 2 3 4 Overall, in 2015, waste act

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    Cement Production 33.3 45.9 32.0 35

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    Total 1,862.5 2,441.6 2,197.3 2,059

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    Total Emissions 6,366.7 7,315.6 6,7

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    N2O 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 Oth

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    International Bunker Fuels a 0.2 0.

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    1 Table 3-4: CO2, CH4, and N2O Emis

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    U.S. Territories a 28.0 50.1 41.7 4

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    Fuel Oil 27.2 45.6 36.7 37.6 37.1 3

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    Medium- and Heavy-Duty 0.5 0.9 0.7

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    Coal b 1,653.7 1,596.3 1,809.1 -3%

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    Gas/Waste Product 1990 2005 2011 20

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    Activity 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2

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    Previous Estimated Emissions from S

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    Emissions (w/o Plunger) (MT) 372,28

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    Reciprocating Compressors 64,413 64

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    CO2 206.8 189.9 172.9 169.6 171.5 1

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    2012 13.8 13,785 2013 14.0 14,028 2

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    1 Table 4-89: CO2 Emissions from Zi

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    2013 321 10,536 2014 323 10,613 201

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