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DRAFT Inventory of U.S Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

2017_complete_report

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Emissions and Removals from Vegetated Coastal Wetlands Remaining Vegetated Coastal Wetlands The conterminous U.S. hosts 2.9 million hectares of intertidal Vegetated Coastal Wetlands Remaining Vegetated Coastal Wetlands comprised of tidally influenced palustrine emergent marsh (599,005 ha), palustrine scrub shrub (137,590 ha) and estuarine emergent marsh (1,853,863 ha), estuarine scrub shrub (96, 998 ha) and estuarine forest (191,473 ha). Mangroves fall under both estuarine forest and estuarine scrub shrub categories depending upon height. Dwarf mangroves, found in Texas, do not attain the height status to be recognized as Forest Land, and are therefore always classified within Vegetated Coastal Wetlands. Vegetated Coastal Wetlands Remaining Vegetated Coastal Wetlands are found in cold temperate (52,403 ha), warm temperate (890,458 ha), subtropical (1,879,314 ha) and Mediterranean (56,755 ha) climate zones. Soils are the largest pool of C in Vegetated Coastal Wetlands Remaining Vegetated Coastal Wetlands reflecting long-term removal of atmospheric CO 2 by vegetation and transfer into the soil pool in the form of decaying organic matter. Emissions of soil C are not assumed to occur in coastal wetlands that remain vegetated. In this Inventory, only C stock changes within soils are reported as insufficient data exists on C stock changes in biomass, DOM and litter. Methane emissions from decomposition of organic matter in anaerobic conditions are significant at salinity less than half that of sea water. Mineral and organic soils are not differentiated in terms of C removals or CH 4 emissions. Table 6-49 through Table 6-52 below summarize nationally aggregated soil C stock emissions and removals and CH 4 emissions on Vegetated Coastal Wetlands. Intact Vegetated Coastal Wetlands Remaining Vegetated Coastal Wetlands hold a large stock of C (here estimated to be 870 MMT C (3,190 MMT CO 2 Eq.) within the top 1 meter of soil to which C is accumulated each year at a rate of 12.2 MMT CO 2 Eq. Methane emissions of 3.5 of MMT CO 2 Eq. offset C removals resulting in an annual net C removal rate of 8.7 MMT CO 2 Eq. Due to federal regulatory protection, loss of Vegetated Coastal Wetland area slowed considerably in the 1970s and currently rates of C stock change and CH 4 emissions are relatively constant over time. Losses of Vegetated Coastal Wetlands to Unvegetated Open Water Coastal Wetlands (described later in this chapter) and to other land uses do occur, which because of the depth to which soil C stocks are impacted, do have a significant impact on the net emissions and removals on Coastal Wetlands. Table 6-49: Net CO2 Flux from Soil C Stock Changes in Vegetated Coastal Wetlands Remaining Vegetated Coastal Wetlands (MMT CO2 Eq.) Year 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Net Flux (12.1) (12.2) (12.2) (12.2) (12.2) (12.2) (12.2) Note: Parentheses indicate net sequestration. Estimates prior to 1996 and after 2010 are extrapolated from the trend based on Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) data and therefore may not fully reflect changes occurring in the latter part of the time series. Mineral and organic soils are not differentiated in terms of C removals. Quality control measures are still underway and estimates will be finalized after public review. 30 31 Table 6-50: Net CO2 Flux from Soil C Stock Changes in Vegetated Coastal Wetlands Remaining Vegetated Coastal Wetlands (MMT C) Year 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Net Flux (3.3) (3.3) (3.3) (3.3) (3.3) (3.3) (3.3) Note: Parentheses indicate net sequestration. Estimates prior to 1996 and after 2010 are extrapolated from the trend based on C-CAP data and therefore may not fully reflect changes occurring in the latter part of the time series. Mineral and organic soils are not differentiated in terms of C removals. Quality control measures are still underway and estimates will be finalized after public review. 6-84 DRAFT Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2015

1 2 Table 6-51: Net CH4 Flux from Vegetated Coastal Wetlands Remaining Vegetated Coastal Wetlands (MMT CO2 Eq.) Year 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Net Flux 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 Note: Parentheses indicate net sequestration. Estimates prior to 1996 and after 2010 are extrapolated based on C-CAP data and therefore may not fully reflect changes occurring in the latter part of the time series. Mineral and organic soils are not differentiated in terms of methane emissions. Quality control measures are still underway and estimates will be finalized after public review. 3 4 Table 6-52: Net CH4 Flux from Vegetated Coastal Wetlands Remaining Vegetated Coastal Wetlands (kt CH4) Year 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Net Flux 138 140 141 141 141 141 141 Note: Parentheses indicate net sequestration. Estimates prior to 1996 and after 2010 are extrapolated based on C-CAP data and therefore may not fully reflect changes occurring in the latter part of the time series. Mineral and organic soils are not differentiated in terms of methane emissions. Quality control measures are still underway and estimates will be finalized after public review. 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Methodology The following section includes a brief description of the methodology used to estimate changes in soil C stocks and emissions of CH 4 for Vegetated Coastal Wetlands Remaining Vegetated Coastal Wetlands. Soil Carbon Stock Changes Soil C removals are estimated for Vegetated Coastal Wetlands Remaining Vegetated Coastal Wetlands for both mineral and organic soils on wetlands below the elevation of high tides (taken to be mean high water spring tide elevation) and as far seawards as the extent of intertidal vascular plants within the U.S. Land Representation according to the national LiDAR dataset, the national network of tide gauges and land use histories recorded in the 1996, 2001, 2005 and 2010 NOAA C-CAP surveys. 67 Federal and non-federal lands are represented. Trends in land cover change are extrapolated to 1990 and 2015 from these datasets. Based upon NOAA C-CAP, coastal wetlands are subdivided into freshwater (Palustrine) and saline (Estuarine) classes and further subdivided into emergent marsh, scrub shrub and forest classes. 68 Soil C stock changes, stratified by climate zones and wetland classes, are derived from a synthesis of peer-reviewed literature (Mangrove pool and removals data: Cahoon & Lynch unpublished data; Lynch 1989; Callaway et al. 1997; Chen & Twilley 1999; McKee & Faulkner 2000; Ross et al. 2000; Chmura et al. 2003; Perry & Mendelssohn 2009; Castaneda-Moya et al. 2013; Henry & Twilley 2013; Doughty et al. 2015; Marchio et al. 2016. Tidal marsh pool and removals data: Anisfeld unpublished data; Cahoon unpublished data; Cahoon & Lynch unpublished data; Chmura unpublished data; McCaffrey & Thomson 1980; Hatton 1981; Callaway et al. 1987; Craft et al. 1988; Cahoon & Turner 1989; Patrick & DeLaune 1990; Kearney & Stevenson 1991;Cahoon et al. 1996; Callaway et al. 1997; Roman et al. 1997; Bryant & Chabrek 1998; Orson et al. 1998; Markewich et al. 1998; Anisfeld et al. 1999; Connor et al. 2001; Choi & Wang 2001; Chmura et al. 2003, Hussein et al. 2004; Craft 2007; Miller et al. 2008; Drexler et al. 2009; Perry & Mendelssohn 2009; Loomis & Craft 2010; EPA’s NWCA 2011; Callaway et al. 2012; Henry & Twilley 2013; Weston et al. 2014). To estimate soil C stock changes no differentiation is made between organic and mineral soils. Tier 2 level estimates of soil C removal associated with annual soil C accumulation from managed Vegetated Coastal Wetlands Remaining Vegetated Coastal Wetlands were developed with country-specific soil C removal factors multiplied by activity data of land area for Vegetated Coastal Wetlands Remaining Vegetated Coastal 67 See 68 See Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry 6-85

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    Cement Production 33.3 45.9 32.0 35

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    Total 1,862.5 2,441.6 2,197.3 2,059

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    Total Emissions 6,366.7 7,315.6 6,7

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    Coal b 1,653.7 1,596.3 1,809.1 -3%

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    Gas/Waste Product 1990 2005 2011 20

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    Activity 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2

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    Emissions (w/o Plunger) (MT) 372,28

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    2013 321 10,536 2014 323 10,613 201

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