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DRAFT Inventory of U.S Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

2017_complete_report

1 Table 6-74: Net C Flux

1 Table 6-74: Net C Flux from Urban Trees (MMT CO2 Eq. and MMT C) Year MMT CO2 Eq. MMT C 1990 (60.4) (16.5) 2005 (80.5) (22.0) 2011 (87.3) (23.8) 2012 (88.4) (24.1) 2013 (89.5) (24.4) 2014 (90.6) (24.7) 2015 (91.7) (25.0) Note: Parentheses indicate net sequestration. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Methodology Methods for quantifying urban tree biomass, C sequestration, and C emissions from tree mortality and decomposition were taken directly from Nowak et al. (2013), Nowak and Crane (2002), and Nowak (1994). In general, the methodology used by Nowak et al. (2013) to estimate net C sequestration in urban trees followed three steps, each of which is explained further in the paragraphs below. First, field data from cities and states were used to estimate C in urban tree biomass from field data on measured tree dimensions. Second, estimates of annual tree growth and biomass increment were generated from published literature and adjusted for tree condition, crown competition, and growing season to generate estimates of gross C sequestration in urban trees for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Third, estimates of C emissions due to mortality and decomposition were subtracted from gross C sequestration values to derive estimates of net C sequestration. For this Inventory report, net C sequestration estimates for all 50 states and the District of Columbia, that were generated using the Nowak et al. (2013) methodology and expressed in units of C sequestered per unit area of tree cover, were then used to estimate urban tree C sequestration in the United States. To accomplish this, we used urban area estimates from U.S. Census data together with urban tree cover percentage estimates for each state and the District of Columbia from remote sensing data, an approach consistent with Nowak et al. (2013). This approach is also consistent with the default IPCC Gain-Loss methodology in IPCC (2006), although sufficient field data are not yet available to separately determine interannual gains and losses in C stocks in the living biomass of urban trees. Instead, the methodology applied here uses estimates of net C sequestration based on modeled estimates of decomposition, as given by Nowak et al. (2013). The first step in the methodology is to estimate C in urban tree biomass. To develop urban tree carbon estimates Nowak et al. (2013) and previously published research (Nowak and Crane 2002; and Nowak 1994, 2007b, and 2009) collected field measurements in a number of U.S. cities between 1989 and 2012. For a random sample of trees in representative cities, tree data were collected regarding stem diameter, tree height, crown height and crown width, tree location, species, and canopy condition. The data for each tree were converted into total dry-weight biomass estimates using allometric equations, a root-to-shoot ratio to convert aboveground biomass estimates to whole tree biomass, and wood moisture content. Total dry weight biomass was converted to C by dividing by two (50 percent carbon content). An adjustment factor of 0.8 was used for open grown trees to account for urban trees having less aboveground biomass for a given stem diameter than predicted by allometric equations based on forest trees (Nowak 1994). Carbon storage estimates for deciduous trees include only C stored in wood. Estimated C storage was divided by tree cover in the area to estimate carbon storage per square meter of tree cover. The second step in the methodology is to estimate rates of tree growth for urban trees in the United States. In the Nowak et al. (2013) methodology that is applied here, growth rates were standardized for open-grown trees in areas with 153 days of frost free length based on measured data on tree growth. These growth rates were then adjusted to local tree conditions based on length of frost free season, crown competition (as crown competition increased, growth rates decreased), and tree condition (as tree condition decreased, growth rates decreased). For each tree, the difference in C storage estimates between year 1 and year (x + 1) represents the gross amount of C sequestered. These annual gross C sequestration rates for each tree were then scaled up to city estimates using tree population information. The 6-102 DRAFT Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2015

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 area of assessment for each city or state was defined by its political boundaries; parks and other forested urban areas were thus included in sequestration estimates (Nowak 2011). Most of the field data used to develop the methodology of Nowak et al. (2013) were analyzed using the U.S. Forest Service’s i-Tree Eco model (formerly Urban Forest Effects (UFORE) model). The i-Tree Eco computer model uses standardized field data from randomly located plots, along with local hourly air pollution and meteorological data to quantify urban forest structure, values of the urban forest, and environmental effects, including total C stored and annual C sequestration. The model was used with field data from randomly sampled plots in each city or urban areas in states to quantify the characteristics of the urban forest (Nowak et al. 2013). Where gross C sequestration accounts for all carbon sequestered, net C sequestration for urban trees takes into account C emissions associated with tree death and removals. In the third step in the methodology developed by Nowak et al. (2002; 2013), estimates of net C emissions from urban trees were derived by applying estimates of annual mortality based on tree condition, and assumptions about whether dead trees were removed from the site. Estimates of annual mortality rates by diameter class and condition class were derived from a study of street-tree mortality (Nowak 1986). Different decomposition rates were applied to dead trees left standing compared with those removed from the site. For removed trees, different rates were applied to the removed/aboveground biomass in contrast to the belowground biomass. The estimated annual gross C emission rates for each plot were then scaled up to city estimates using tree population information. The data for all 50 states and the District of Columbia are described in Nowak et al. (2013) and reproduced in Table 6-75, which builds upon previous research, including: Nowak and Crane (2002), Nowak et al. (2007), Nowak and Greenfield (2012), and references cited therein. The full methodology development is described in the underlying literature, and key details and assumptions were made as follows. The allometric equations applied to the field data for the Nowak methodology for each tree were taken from the scientific literature (see Nowak 1994, Nowak et al. 2002), but if no allometric equation could be found for the particular species, the average result for the genus or botanical relative was used. The adjustment (0.8) to account for less live tree biomass in open-grown urban trees was based on information in Nowak (1994). Measured tree growth rates for street (Frelich 1992; Fleming 1988; Nowak 1994), park (deVries 1987), and forest (Smith and Shifley 1984) trees were standardized to an average length of growing season (153 frost free days) and adjusted for site competition and tree condition. Standardized growth rates of trees of the same species or genus were then compared to determine the average difference between standardized street tree growth and standardized park and forest growth rates. Crown light exposure (CLE) measurements (number of sides and/or top of tree exposed to sunlight) were used to represent forest, park, and open (street) tree growth conditions. Local tree base growth rates (BG) were then calculated as the average standardized growth rate for open-grown trees multiplied by the number of frost free days divided by 153. Growth rates were then adjusted for CLE. The CLE adjusted growth rate was then adjusted based on tree health and tree condition to determine the final growth rate. Assumptions for which dead trees would be removed versus left standing were developed specific to each land use and were based on expert judgment of the authors. Decomposition rates were based on literature estimates (Nowak et al. 2013). Estimates of gross and net sequestration rates for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia (Table 6-75) were compiled in units of C sequestration per unit area of tree canopy cover. These rates were used in conjunction with estimates of state urban area and urban tree cover data (Nowak and Greenfield 2012) to calculate each state’s annual net C sequestration by urban trees. This method was described in Nowak et al. (2013) and has been modified here to incorporate U.S. Census data. Specifically, urban area estimates were based on 1990, 2000, and 2010 U.S. Census data. The 1990 U.S. Census defined urban land as “urbanized areas,” which included land with a population density greater than 1,000 people per square mile, and adjacent “urban places,” which had predefined political boundaries and a population total greater than 2,500. In 2000, the U.S. Census replaced the “urban places” category with a new category of urban land called an “urban cluster,” which included areas with more than 500 people per square mile. In 2010, the Census updated its definitions to have “urban areas” encompassing Census tract delineated cities with 50,000 or more people, and “urban clusters” containing Census tract delineated locations with between 2,500 and 50,000 people. Urban land area increased by approximately 23 percent from 1990 to 2000 and 14 percent from 2000 to 2010; Nowak et al. (2005) estimate that the changes in the definition of urban land are responsible for approximately 20 percent of the total reported increase in urban land area from 1990 to 2000. Under all Census (i.e., 1990, 2000, and 2010) definitions, the urban category encompasses most cities, towns, and villages (i.e., it includes both urban and suburban areas). Settlements area, as assessed in the Representation of the U.S. Land Base developed for this report, Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry 6-103

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    Residential 338.3 357.8 325.5 282.5

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    Forest Land Remaining Forest Land:

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    a Emissions from Wood Biomass and E

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    1 2 3 4 Overall, in 2015, waste act

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    Cement Production 33.3 45.9 32.0 35

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    Total 1,862.5 2,441.6 2,197.3 2,059

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    Total Emissions 6,366.7 7,315.6 6,7

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    N2O 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 Oth

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    International Bunker Fuels a 0.2 0.

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    U.S. Territories a 28.0 50.1 41.7 4

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    Fuel Oil 27.2 45.6 36.7 37.6 37.1 3

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    Medium- and Heavy-Duty 0.5 0.9 0.7

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    Coal b 1,653.7 1,596.3 1,809.1 -3%

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    Gas/Waste Product 1990 2005 2011 20

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    Activity 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2

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    Emissions (w/o Plunger) (MT) 372,28

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    Reciprocating Compressors 64,413 64

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    CO2 206.8 189.9 172.9 169.6 171.5 1

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    1 Table 4-89: CO2 Emissions from Zi

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