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DRAFT Inventory of U.S Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

2017_complete_report

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 encompassed all developed parcels greater than 0.1 hectares in size, including rural transportation corridors, and as previously mentioned represents a larger area than the Census-derived urban area estimates. However, the smaller, Census-derived urban area estimates were deemed to be more suitable for estimating national urban tree cover given the data available in the peer-reviewed literature (i.e., the data set available is consistent with Census urban rather than Settlements areas), and the recognized overlap in the changes in C stocks between urban forest and non-urban forest (see Planned Improvements below). U.S. Census urban area data is reported as a series of continuous blocks of urban area in each state. The blocks or urban area were summed to create each state’s urban area estimate. Net annual C sequestration estimates were derived for all 50 states and the District of Columbia by multiplying the gross annual emission estimates by 0.74, the standard ratio for net/gross sequestration set out in Table 3 of Nowak et al. (2013) (unless data existed for both gross and net sequestration for the state in Table 2 of Nowak et. al. (2013), in which case they were divided to get a state-specific ratio). The gross and net annual C sequestration values for each state were multiplied by each state’s area of tree cover, which was the product of the state’s urban/community area as defined in the U.S. Census (2012) and the state’s urban/community tree cover percentage. The urban/community tree cover percentage estimates for all 50 states were obtained from Nowak and Greenfield (2012). The urban/community tree cover percentage estimate for the District of Columbia was obtained from Nowak et al. (2013). The urban area estimates were taken from the 2010 U.S. Census (2012). The equation, used to calculate the summed carbon sequestration amounts, can be written as follows: Net annual C sequestration = Gross sequestration rate × Net to Gross sequestration ratio × Urban Area × % Tree Cover Table 6-75: Annual C Sequestration (Metric Tons C/Year), Tree Cover (Percent), and Annual C Sequestration per Area of Tree Cover (kg C/m 2 -yr) for 50 states plus the District of Columbia (2015) Gross Annual Sequestration per Area of Tree Cover Net Annual Sequestration per Area of Tree Cover Net: Gross Annual Sequestration Ratio State Gross Annual Sequestration Net Annual Sequestration Tree Cover Alabama 1,186,389 877,928 55.2 0.343 0.254 0.74 Alaska 44,669 33,055 39.8 0.168 0.124 0.74 Arizona 393,844 291,445 17.6 0.354 0.262 0.74 Arkansas 431,702 319,459 42.3 0.331 0.245 0.74 California 2,112,897 1,563,544 25.1 0.389 0.288 0.74 Colorado 156,207 115,593 18.5 0.197 0.146 0.74 Connecticut 773,253 572,207 67.4 0.239 0.177 0.74 Delaware 139,198 103,006 35.0 0.335 0.248 0.74 DC 14,560 11,570 35.0 0.263 0.209 0.79 Florida 3,478,878 2,574,369 35.5 0.475 0.352 0.74 Georgia 2,632,675 1,948,179 54.1 0.353 0.261 0.74 Hawaii 248,700 184,038 39.9 0.581 0.430 0.74 Idaho 25,970 19,218 10.0 0.184 0.136 0.74 Illinois 766,689 567,350 25.4 0.283 0.209 0.74 Indiana 410,635 379,697 23.7 0.250 0.231 0.92 Iowa 120,611 89,252 19.0 0.240 0.178 0.74 Kansas 188,038 146,325 25.0 0.283 0.220 0.78 Kentucky 246,818 182,646 22.1 0.286 0.212 0.74 Louisiana 760,473 562,750 34.9 0.397 0.294 0.74 Maine 108,201 80,069 52.3 0.221 0.164 0.74 Maryland 603,569 446,641 34.3 0.323 0.239 0.74 Massachusetts 1,317,294 974,798 65.1 0.254 0.188 0.74 Michigan 744,415 550,867 35.0 0.220 0.163 0.74 Minnesota 356,705 263,962 34.0 0.229 0.169 0.74 Mississippi 501,688 371,249 47.3 0.344 0.255 0.74 Missouri 504,245 373,141 31.5 0.285 0.211 0.74 Montana 54,573 40,384 36.3 0.184 0.136 0.74 Nebraska 51,538 43,492 15.0 0.238 0.201 0.84 Nevada 45,246 33,482 9.6 0.207 0.153 0.74 New Hampshire 253,439 187,545 66.0 0.217 0.161 0.74 New Jersey 1,205,107 891,779 53.3 0.294 0.218 0.74 6-104 DRAFT Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2015

New Mexico 70,608 52,250 12.0 0.263 0.195 0.74 New York 1,099,935 813,952 42.6 0.240 0.178 0.74 North Carolina 2,119,981 1,568,786 51.1 0.312 0.231 0.74 North Dakota 15,233 7,238 13.0 0.223 0.106 0.48 Ohio 935,554 692,310 31.5 0.248 0.184 0.74 Oklahoma 370,059 273,844 31.2 0.332 0.246 0.74 Oregon 262,861 194,517 36.6 0.242 0.179 0.74 Pennsylvania 1,276,092 944,308 41.0 0.244 0.181 0.74 Rhode Island 137,300 101,602 51.0 0.258 0.191 0.74 South Carolina 1,129,970 836,178 48.9 0.338 0.250 0.74 South Dakota 21,844 18,943 14.0 0.236 0.205 0.87 Tennessee 1,079,558 965,252 43.8 0.303 0.271 0.89 Texas 2,856,332 2,113,685 31.4 0.368 0.272 0.74 Utah 93,759 69,381 16.4 0.215 0.159 0.74 Vermont 46,801 34,633 53.0 0.213 0.158 0.74 Virginia 848,272 627,721 39.8 0.293 0.217 0.74 Washington 576,566 426,659 34.6 0.258 0.191 0.74 West Virginia 258,258 191,111 61.0 0.241 0.178 0.74 Wisconsin 368,715 272,849 31.8 0.225 0.167 0.74 Wyoming 19,442 14,387 19.9 0.182 0.135 0.74 Total 33,465,363 24,018,645 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Uncertainty and Time-Series Consistency Uncertainty associated with changes in C stocks in urban trees includes the uncertainty associated with urban area, percent urban tree coverage, and estimates of gross and net C sequestration for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. A 10 percent uncertainty was associated with urban area estimates based on expert judgment. Uncertainty associated with estimates of percent urban tree coverage for each of the 50 states was based on standard error estimates reported by Nowak and Greenfield (2012). Uncertainty associated with estimate of percent urban tree coverage for the District of Columbia was based on the standard error estimate reported by Nowak et al. (2013). Uncertainty associated with estimates of gross and net C sequestration for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia was based on standard error estimates for each of the state-level sequestration estimates reported by Nowak et al. (2013). These estimates are based on field data collected in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia, and uncertainty in these estimates increases as they are scaled up to the national level. Additional uncertainty is associated with the biomass equations, conversion factors, and decomposition assumptions used to calculate C sequestration and emission estimates (Nowak et al. 2002). These results also exclude changes in soil C stocks, and there is some overlap between the urban tree C estimates and the forest tree C estimates as detailed in Nowak et al. (2013). Due to data limitations, urban soil flux is not quantified as part of this analysis, while reconciliation of urban tree and forest tree estimates will be addressed through the land-representation effort described in the Planned Improvements section of this chapter. A Monte Carlo (Approach 2) uncertainty analysis was applied to estimate the overall uncertainty of the sequestration estimate. The results of the Approach 2 quantitative uncertainty analysis are summarized in Table 6-76. The net C flux from changes in C stocks in urban trees in 2015 was estimated to be between -135.3 and -47.3 MMT CO 2 Eq. at a 95 percent confidence level. This indicates a range of 47 percent more sequestration to 48 percent less sequestration than the 2015 flux estimate of -91.7 MMT CO 2 Eq. Table 6-76: Approach 2 Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for Net C Flux from Changes in C Stocks in Urban Trees (MMT CO2 Eq. and Percent) Source Gas 2015 Flux Estimate Uncertainty Range Relative to Flux Estimate a (MMT CO2 Eq.) (MMT CO2 Eq.) (%) Lower Bound Upper Bound Lower Bound Upper Bound Changes in C Stocks in Urban Trees CO2 (91.7) (135.3) (47.3) -47% 48% Note: Parentheses indicate negative values or net sequestration. a Range of flux estimates predicted by Monte Carlo Stochastic Simulation for a 95 percent confidence interval. Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry 6-105

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    Residential 338.3 357.8 325.5 282.5

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 irreversible accumulati

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    Substitution of Ozone Depleting Sub

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    Forest Land Remaining Forest Land:

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    1 2 3 Figure ES-15: U.S. Greenhouse

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    a Emission estimates reported in th

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    a Emissions from Wood Biomass and E

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    Electrical Transmission and Distrib

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    CH4 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 Pet

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    1 Table 2-7: Emissions from Agricul

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    1 2 Table 2-8: U.S. Greenhouse Gas

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    1 2 3 4 Overall, in 2015, waste act

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    Cement Production 33.3 45.9 32.0 35

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    Total 1,862.5 2,441.6 2,197.3 2,059

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    Total Emissions 6,366.7 7,315.6 6,7

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    N2O 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 Oth

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    International Bunker Fuels a 0.2 0.

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    1 Table 3-4: CO2, CH4, and N2O Emis

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    1 Figure 3-3: 2015 U.S. Energy Cons

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    1 2 Figure 3-6: Annual Deviations f

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    U.S. Territories a 28.0 50.1 41.7 4

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    Fuel Oil 27.2 45.6 36.7 37.6 37.1 3

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    1 Figure 3-9: Electricity Generatio

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    1 Figure 3-11: Industrial Productio

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    1 Figure 3-13: Sales of New Passeng

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    Medium- and Heavy-Duty 0.5 0.9 0.7

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    Coal b 1,653.7 1,596.3 1,809.1 -3%

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    1 Table 3-20: Adjusted Consumption

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    Gas/Waste Product 1990 2005 2011 20

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    Activity 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2

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    Previous Estimated Emissions from S

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    Emissions (w/o Plunger) (MT) 372,28

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    Reciprocating Compressors 64,413 64

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    CO2 206.8 189.9 172.9 169.6 171.5 1

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    2012 13.8 13,785 2013 14.0 14,028 2

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    1 2 3 MMT CO 2 Eq. (10,828 kt) (see

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    2012 10.5 35 2013 10.7 36 2014 10.9

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    1 2 Table 4-70: Production and Cons

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    1 Table 4-89: CO2 Emissions from Zi

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    + Does not exceed 0.05 MMT CO2 Eq.

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    Land Converted to Forest Land (92.0

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    a Miscellaneous includes TSDFs (Tre

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    Enteric Fermentation NC NC + NC + (

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