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DRAFT Inventory of U.S Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

2017_complete_report

1 Table 7-4: CH4

1 Table 7-4: CH4 Emissions from Landfills (kt) Activity 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 MSW CH4 Generation 8,214 - - - - - - Industrial CH4 Generation 484 636 657 659 661 662 662 MSW CH4 Recovered (718) - - - - - - MSW CH4 Oxidized (750) - - - - - - Industrial CH4 Oxidized (48) (64) (66) (66) (66) (66) (66) MSW net CH4 Emissions (GHGRP) - 4,800 4,169 4,241 4,074 4,067 4,032 Total 7,182 5,372 4,760 4,834 4,669 4,663 4,628 Notes: Totals may not sum due to independent rounding. For years 1990 to 2004, the Inventory methodology uses the first order decay methodology. A methodological change occurs in year 2005. For years 2005 to 2015, net CH4 emissions from EPA’s GHGRP data are used. These data incorporate CH4 recovered and oxidized. Parentheses indicate negative values. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Methodology Methodology Applied for MSW Landfills Methane emissions from landfills can be estimated using two primary methods. The first method uses the first order decay model as described by the 2006 IPCC Guidelines to estimate CH 4 generation. The amount of CH 4 recovered and combusted from MSW landfills is subtracted from the CH 4 generation, and is then adjusted with an oxidation factor. The oxidation factor represents the amount of CH 4 in a landfill that is oxidized to CO 2 as it passes through the landfill cover (e.g., soil, clay, geomembrane, alternative daily cover). This method is presented below, and is similar to Equation HH-5 in CFR Part 98.343 for MSW landfills, and Equation TT-6 in CFR Part 98.463 for industrial waste landfills. CH4,Solid Waste = [CH4,MSW + CH4,Ind − R] − Ox where, CH 4,Solid Waste CH 4,MSW CH 4,Ind R Ox = Net CH 4 emissions from solid waste = CH 4 generation from MSW landfills = CH 4 generation from industrial landfills = CH 4 recovered and combusted (only for MSW landfills) = CH 4 oxidized from MSW and industrial waste landfills before release to the atmosphere The second method used to calculate CH 4 emissions from landfills, also called the back calculation method, is based off of directly measured amounts of recovered CH 4 from the landfill gas and is expressed below and by Equation HH-8 in CFR Part 98.343. The two parts of the equation consider the portion of CH 4 in the landfill gas is not collected by the landfill gas collection system; and the portion that is collected. First, the recovered CH 4 is adjusted with the collection efficiency of the gas collection and control system and the fraction of hours the recovery system operated in the calendar year. This quantity represents the amount of CH 4 in the landfill gas that is not captured by the collection system; it is then adjusted for oxidation. The second portion of the equation adjusts the portion of CH 4 in the collected landfill gas with the efficiency of the destruction device(s), and the fraction of hours the destruction device(s) operated during the year. where, R CE f REC R CH 4,Solid Waste = [( − R) x(1 − OX) + R x (1 − (DE x f CE x f Dest )) REC = Quantity of recovered CH 4 from Equation HH-4 of the GHGRP = Collection efficiency estimated at the landfill, taking into account system coverage, operation, and cover system materials from Table HH-3 of the GHGRP. If area by soil cover type information is not available, the default value of 0.75 should be used. (percent) = fraction of hours the recovery system was operating (percent) Waste 7-5

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 OX DE f Dest = oxidation factor (percent) = destruction efficiency (percent) = fraction of hours the destruction device was operating (fraction) The current Inventory uses both methods to estimate CH 4 emissions across the time series. In previous Inventory reports, only the first order decay method was used. Methodological changes have been made to the current Inventory to incorporate higher tier data (i.e., CH 4 emissions directly reported to EPA’s GHGRP), which cannot be directly applied to earlier years in the time series without significant bias. The overlap technique, as described in the Methodological Recalculations section of this Inventory, and in the Time Series Consistency chapter of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines, was used to merge the higher tier data with the previously used method. The first order decay method is exclusively used for 1990 to 2004. The CH 4 generation is based on nationwide MSW generation data, to which a national average disposal factor is applied; it is not landfill-specific. The amount of CH 4 recovered, however, is landfill-specific, but only for MSW landfills due to a lack of data specific to industrial waste landfills. A combination of both methods are used for the rest of the time series (i.e., 2005 to 2015) in this Inventory. Specifically, directly reported CH 4 emissions from EPA’s GHGRP are used for years they are available (i.e., 2010 to 2015). Landfills reporting to EPA’s GHGRP without gas collection and control apply the first order decay method, while the majority of landfills with landfill gas collection and control apply the backcalculation method. The directly reported GHGRP emissions data were used to back-cast CH 4 emissions for 2005 to 2010. An overview of the data sources and methodology used to calculate CH 4 generation and recovery is provided below, while a more detailed description of the methodology used to estimate CH 4 emissions from landfills can be found in Annex 3.14. Description of the First Order Decay Methodology for MSW Landfills States and local municipalities across the United States do not consistently track and report quantities of MSW generated or collected for management, nor are end-of-life disposal methods reported to a centralized system. Therefore, national MSW landfill waste generation and disposal data are obtained from secondary data, specifically the State of Garbage (SOG) surveys, published approximately every two years, with the most recent publication date of 2014. The SOG survey was the only continually updated nationwide survey of waste disposed in landfills in the United States and was the primary data source with which to estimate nationwide CH 4 generation from MSW landfills. Now, EPA’s GHGRP waste disposal data and MSW management data published by EREF are available. The SOG surveys use the principles of mass balance where all MSW generated is equal to the amount of MSW landfilled, combusted in waste-to-energy plants, composted, and/or recycled (BioCycle 2010; Shin 2014). This approach assumes that all waste management methods are tracked and reported to state agencies. Survey respondents are asked to provide a breakdown of MSW generated and managed by landfilling, recycling, composting, and combustion (in waste-to-energy facilities) in actual tonnages as opposed to reporting a percent generated under each waste disposal option. The data reported through the survey have typically been adjusted to exclude non-MSW materials (e.g., industrial and agricultural wastes, construction and demolition debris, automobile scrap, and sludge from wastewater treatment plants) that may be included in survey responses. In the most recent survey, state agencies were asked to provide already filtered, MSW-only data. Where this was not possible, they were asked to provide comments to better understand the data being reported. All state disposal data are adjusted for imports and exports across state lines where imported waste is included in a particular state’s total while exported waste is not. Methodological changes have occurred over the time frame the SOG survey has been published, and this has affected the fluctuating trends observed in the data (RTI 2013). The SOG survey is voluntary and not all states provide data for each survey year. Where no waste generation data are provided by a state in the SOG survey, the amount generated is estimated by multiplying the waste per capita from a previous SOG survey by that particular state’s population. If that particular state did not report any waste generation data in the previous SOG survey, the average nationwide waste per capita rate for the current SOG survey is multiplied by that particular state’s population. The quantities of waste generated across all states are summed and that value is then used as the nationwide quantity of waste generated in a given reporting year. State-specific landfill MSW generation data and a national average disposal factor for 1989 through 2008 were obtained from the SOG survey every two years (i.e., 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2008 as published in BioCycle 2006, and 2008 as published in BioCycle 2010). The most recent SOG survey provides data for 2011 (Shin 2014). The EREF published a report on MSW Management in the United States that includes state-specific landfill MSW 7-6 DRAFT Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2015

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    1 2 3 4 Overall, in 2015, waste act

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    Cement Production 33.3 45.9 32.0 35

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    Total 1,862.5 2,441.6 2,197.3 2,059

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    Total Emissions 6,366.7 7,315.6 6,7

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    N2O 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 Oth

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    U.S. Territories a 28.0 50.1 41.7 4

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    Fuel Oil 27.2 45.6 36.7 37.6 37.1 3

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    Coal b 1,653.7 1,596.3 1,809.1 -3%

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    Gas/Waste Product 1990 2005 2011 20

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    Activity 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2

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    Emissions (w/o Plunger) (MT) 372,28

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    1 Table 4-89: CO2 Emissions from Zi

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  • Page 473 and 474: New Mexico 70,608 52,250 12.0 0.263
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  • Page 481 and 482: C Storage Factor, Proportion of Ini
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  • Page 489 and 490: 1 Table 7-2: Emissions from Waste (
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  • Page 509 and 510: 2013 321 10,536 2014 323 10,613 201
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  • Page 529 and 530: Enteric Fermentation NC NC + NC + (
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