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DRAFT Inventory of U.S Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

2017_complete_report

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Planned Improvements Data collected under the EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program Subpart II, Industrial Wastewater Treatment (GHGRP) is being investigated for use in improving the emission estimates for the industrial wastewater category. Because reporting data from EPA’s GHGRP are not available for all Inventory years, ensuring time series consistency has been a priority. In addition, the representativeness of GHGRP reporters has been investigated to determine if moving to a facility-level implementation of GHGRP data is warranted, or whether the GHGRP data will allow update of activity data for certain industry sectors, such as use of biogas recovery systems or update of waste characterization data. Since EPA’s GHGRP only includes reporters that have met the reporting threshold, and because it is not currently possible to review whether reporters represent the majority of U.S. production, GHGRP data are not believed to be sufficiently representative to move toward facility-level estimates in the Inventory. However, EPA’s GHGRP data continues to be evaluated for improvements to activity data, and in verifying methodologies currently in use in the Inventory to estimate emissions (ERG 2014a, 2016). In implementing any improvements and integration of data from EPA’s GHGRP, the latest guidance from IPCC will be followed. 7 In addition, reports continue to be investigated which could inform potential updates to the Inventory based on international research. The Global Water Research Coalition (GWRC 2011) report was previously evaluated, which included results of studies from Australia, France, the Netherlands and the US. Since each dataset was taken from a variety of wastewater treatment plant types using different methodologies and protocols, it was not representative enough to include in the Inventory (ERG 2014b). In addition to this report, wastewater inventory submissions from other countries have been evaluated to determine if there are any emission factors, specific methodologies, or additional industries that could be used to inform the U.S. inventory calculations. Although no comparable data have been found, investigations into other countries’ Inventory reports continues for investigating potential improvements to the Inventory. Currently, for domestic wastewater, it is assumed that all aerobic wastewater treatment systems are well-managed and produce no CH 4 and that all anaerobic systems have an MCF of 0.8. Efforts to obtain better data reflecting emissions from various types of municipal treatment systems are currently being pursued by researchers, including the Water Environment Research Federation (WERF). This research includes data on emissions from partially anaerobic treatment systems which have been reviewed, but the emissions were too variable and the sample size too small to include in the Inventory at this time (Willis et al. 2013). In addition, information on flare efficiencies were reviewed, but they were not suitable for use in updating the Inventory because the flares used in the study are likely not comparable to those used at wastewater treatment plants (ERG 2014b). The status of this and similar research continues to be monitored for potential inclusion in the Inventory in the future. For industrial wastewater emissions, we are working with the National Council of Air and Stream Improvement (NCASI) to determine if there are sufficient data available to update the estimates of organic loading in pulp and paper wastewaters treated on site. These data include the estimates of wastewater generated per unit of production, the BOD and/or COD concentration of these wastewaters, and the industry-level production basis used in the Inventory. Data on the industry-level production basis to date has been received and will be incorporated, but in order to incorporate that data, the production basis in relation to the wastewater generation rate and the organic content of the wastewater needs to be evaluated to ensure it is incorporated correctly into the Inventory. Breweries are also being evaluated as sources of industrial wastewater emissions to determine the scale of methane quantities produced. A benchmarking study will be available in the near future which could improve preliminary brewery estimates and fill in current data gaps for potential inclusion in future inventories. The inclusion of wastewater treatment emissions from dairy products processing into Inventory estimates is being investigated, and will continue focusing on contacts in industry groups, such as the National Milk Producers Federation, to determine if there are readily available data on a national scale that could facilitate calculation of national emission estimates from this industry. The methodology to estimate CH 4 emissions from domestic wastewater treatment currently utilizes estimates for the percentage of centrally treated wastewater that is treated by aerobic systems and anaerobic systems. These data 7 IPCC guidance for models and facility-level data, see . Waste 7-31

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 come from the 1992, 1996, 2000, and 2004 CWNS. The question of whether activity data for wastewater treatment systems are sufficient across the time series to further differentiate aerobic systems with the potential to generate small amounts of CH 4 (aerobic lagoons) versus other types of aerobic systems, and to differentiate between anaerobic systems to allow for the use of different MCFs for different types of anaerobic treatment systems, continues to be explored. A methodology was developed to use the 2008 and 2012 CWNS data for wastewater treated in denitrification systems, and in future years of the Inventory it may be possible to utilize these years of the CWNS to update the aerobic/anaerobic data. Additional information and other data continue to be evaluated to update future years of the Inventory, including anaerobic digester data compiled by the North East Biosolids and Residuals Association (NEBRA) in collaboration with several other entities. While NEBRA is no longer involved in the project, the Water Environment Federation (WEF) now hosts and manages the dataset which has been relocated to www.wef.org/biosolids. Water Environment Federation (WEF) biosolid data continues to be evaluated as a potential source of digester, sludge, and biogas data from POTWs. Previously, new measurement data from WERF were used to develop a U.S.-specific emission factor for CH 4 emissions from septic systems and incorporated into the Inventory emissions calculation. Due to the high uncertainty of the measurements for N 2O from septic systems, estimates of N 2O emissions were not included. Appropriate emission factors for septic system N 2O emissions will continue to be investigated as the data collected by WERF indicate that septic systems are a source of N 2O emissions. In addition, the estimate of N entering municipal treatment systems is under review. The factor that accounts for non-sewage N in wastewater (bath, laundry, kitchen, industrial components) has a high uncertainty. Obtaining data on the changes in average influent N concentrations to centralized treatment systems over the time series would improve the estimate of total N entering the system, which would reduce or eliminate the need for other factors for non-consumed protein or industrial flow. The dataset previously provided by the National Association of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA) was reviewed to determine if it was representative of the larger population of centralized treatment plants for potential inclusion into the Inventory. However, this limited dataset was not representative of the number of systems by state or the service populations served in the United States, and therefore could not be incorporated into the Inventory methodology. Additional data sources will continue to be researched with the goal of improving the uncertainty of the estimate of N entering municipal treatment systems. Unfortunately, NACWA’s suggestion of using National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit data to estimate nitrogen loading rates is not feasible. Not every POTW is required to measure for N so the database is not a complete source. Typically, only those POTWs that are required to reduce nutrients would be monitored, so the database may reflect lower N effluent loadings than that typical throughout the United States. Sources of data for development of a country-specific methodology for N 2O emissions associated with on-site industrial wastewater treatment operations continue to be investigated, including the appropriateness of using IPCC’s default factor for domestic wastewater (0.005 kg N 2O-N/kg N). The value used for N content of sludge also continues to be investigated. This value is driving the N 2O emissions for wastewater treatment and is static over the time series. To date, new data have not been identified that would be able to establish a time series for this value. The amount of sludge produced and sludge disposal practices will also be investigated. In addition, based on UNFCCC review comments, the transparency of the fate of sludge produced in wastewater treatment will continue to be improved. 7.3 Composting (IPCC Source Category 5B1) Composting of organic waste, such as food waste, garden (yard) and park waste, and wastewater treatment sludge and/or biosolids, is common in the United States. Advantages of composting include reduced volume of the waste, stabilization of the waste, and destruction of pathogens in the waste. The end products of composting, depending on its quality, can be recycled as a fertilizer and soil amendment, or be disposed of in a landfill. Composting is an aerobic process and a large fraction of the degradable organic carbon in the waste material is converted into carbon dioxide (CO 2). Methane (CH 4) is formed in anaerobic sections of the compost, which are created when there is excessive moisture or inadequate aeration (or mixing) of the compost pile. This CH 4 is then oxidized to a large extent in the aerobic sections of the compost. The estimated CH 4 released into the atmosphere ranges from less than 1 percent to a few percent of the initial C content in the material (IPCC 2006). Depending on 7-32 DRAFT Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2015

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    Residential 338.3 357.8 325.5 282.5

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 irreversible accumulati

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    Substitution of Ozone Depleting Sub

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    Forest Land Remaining Forest Land:

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    1 2 3 Figure ES-15: U.S. Greenhouse

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    1 Figure 1-1: National Inventory Ar

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    a Emission estimates reported in th

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    1 3.10. Methodology for Estimating

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    1 2 Figure 2-2: Annual Percent Chan

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 gas for electricity

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    a Emissions from Wood Biomass and E

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    Electrical Transmission and Distrib

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    Wetlands (4.0) (5.3) (4.1) (4.2) (4

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    CH4 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 Pet

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    1 Table 2-7: Emissions from Agricul

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    1 2 Table 2-8: U.S. Greenhouse Gas

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    1 2 3 4 Overall, in 2015, waste act

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    Cement Production 33.3 45.9 32.0 35

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    Total 1,862.5 2,441.6 2,197.3 2,059

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    Total Emissions 6,366.7 7,315.6 6,7

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    N2O 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 Oth

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    International Bunker Fuels a 0.2 0.

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    1 Table 3-4: CO2, CH4, and N2O Emis

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    1 Figure 3-3: 2015 U.S. Energy Cons

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    1 2 Figure 3-6: Annual Deviations f

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    U.S. Territories a 28.0 50.1 41.7 4

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    Fuel Oil 27.2 45.6 36.7 37.6 37.1 3

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    1 Figure 3-9: Electricity Generatio

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    1 Figure 3-11: Industrial Productio

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    1 Figure 3-13: Sales of New Passeng

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    Medium- and Heavy-Duty 0.5 0.9 0.7

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    1 2 Figure 3-15: U.S. Energy Consum

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    Coal b 1,653.7 1,596.3 1,809.1 -3%

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    1 2 Table 3-17: Approach 2 Quantita

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    1 Table 3-20: Adjusted Consumption

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    Gas/Waste Product 1990 2005 2011 20

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    Activity 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2

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    Previous Estimated Emissions from S

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    Emissions (w/o Plunger) (MT) 372,28

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    Reciprocating Compressors 64,413 64

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    1 Table 3-72: Woody Biomass Consump

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    CO2 206.8 189.9 172.9 169.6 171.5 1

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    2012 13.8 13,785 2013 14.0 14,028 2

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    1 2 3 MMT CO 2 Eq. (10,828 kt) (see

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    1 Table 4-24: Urea Production, Urea

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    2012 10.5 35 2013 10.7 36 2014 10.9

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    2015 4.3 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

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    2013 4.1 0.3 2014 5.0 0.3 1 2 3 4 5

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    1 2 Table 4-70: Production and Cons

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    1 Table 4-89: CO2 Emissions from Zi

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    Graphic Arts + 0 0 0 0 0 0 Non-Indu

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    + Does not exceed 0.05 MMT CO2 Eq.

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 methodology te

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    1 Table 5-21: Emissions from Liming

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    Land Converted to Forest Land (92.0

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    1 2 Table 6-7: Land Use and Land-Us

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    1 2 Harvested wood products (HWP)

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    Note: Forest C stocks do not includ

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    1 2 3 Total Aboveground Biomass Flu

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    Belowground Live Biomass 2.3 2.0 2.

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    1 2 Table 6-34: Net CO2 Flux from S

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    1 2 3 4 5 above the 2015 stock chan

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    Other Lands Converted Grassland Min

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    On-site 70 71 60 53 50 50 49 N2O (O

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    1 2 3 4 result in cessation of emis

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  • Page 473 and 474: New Mexico 70,608 52,250 12.0 0.263
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  • Page 509 and 510: 2013 321 10,536 2014 323 10,613 201
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  • Page 529 and 530: Enteric Fermentation NC NC + NC + (
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