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DRAFT Inventory of U.S Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

2017_complete_report

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 1.3 Inventory Process This section describes EPA’s approach to preparing the annual U.S. Inventory, which consists of a National Inventory Report (NIR) and Common Reporting Format (CRF) tables. The inventory coordinator at EPA is responsible for compiling all emission estimates and ensuring consistency and quality throughout the NIR and CRF tables. Emission calculations for individual sources are the responsibility of individual source leads, who are most familiar with each source category and the unique characteristics of its emissions profile. The individual source leads determine the most appropriate methodology and collect the best activity data to use in the emission calculations, based upon their expertise in the source category, as well as coordinating with researchers and contractors familiar with the sources. A multi-stage process for collecting information from the individual source leads and producing the Inventory is undertaken annually to compile all information and data. Methodology Development, Data Collection, and Emissions and Sink Estimation Source leads at EPA collect input data and, as necessary, evaluate or develop the estimation methodology for the individual source categories. Because EPA has been preparing the Inventory for many years, for most source categories, the methodology for the previous year is applied to the new “current” year of the Inventory, and inventory analysts collect any new data or update data that have changed from the previous year. If estimates for a new source category are being developed for the first time, or if the methodology is changing for an existing source category (e.g., the United States is implementing a higher Tiered approach for that source category), then the source category lead will develop a new methodology, gather the most appropriate activity data and emission factors (or in some cases direct emission measurements) for the entire time series, and conduct a special source-specific review process involving relevant experts from industry, government, and universities. Once the methodology is in place and the data are collected, the individual source leads calculate emissions and sink estimates. The source leads then update or create the relevant text and accompanying annexes for the Inventory. Source leads are also responsible for completing the relevant sectoral background tables of the CRF, conducting quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) checks, and uncertainty analyses. Summary Data Compilation and Storage The inventory coordinator at EPA collects the source categories’ descriptive text and Annexes, and also aggregates the emission estimates into a summary spreadsheet that links the individual source category spreadsheets together. This summary sheet contains all of the essential data in one central location, in formats commonly used in the Inventory document. In addition to the data from each source category, national trend and related data are also gathered in the summary sheet for use in the Executive Summary, Introduction, and Recent Trends sections of the Inventory report. Electronic copies of each year’s summary spreadsheet, which contains all the emission and sink estimates for the United States, are kept on a central server at EPA under the jurisdiction of the inventory coordinator. National Inventory Report Preparation The NIR is compiled from the sections developed by each individual source lead. In addition, the inventory coordinator prepares a brief overview of each chapter that summarizes the emissions from all sources discussed in the chapters. The inventory coordinator then carries out a key category analysis for the Inventory, consistent with the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, and in accordance with the reporting requirements of the UNFCCC. Also at this time, the Introduction, Executive Summary, and Recent Trends sections are drafted, to reflect the trends for the most recent year of the current Inventory. The analysis of trends necessitates gathering supplemental data, including weather and temperature conditions, economic activity and gross domestic product, population, atmospheric conditions, and the annual consumption of electricity, energy, and fossil fuels. Changes in Introduction 1-13

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 these data are used to explain the trends observed in greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Furthermore, specific factors that affect individual sectors are researched and discussed. Many of the factors that affect emissions are included in the Inventory document as separate analyses or side discussions in boxes within the text. Text boxes are also created to examine the data aggregated in different ways than in the remainder of the document, such as a focus on transportation activities or emissions from electricity generation. The document is prepared to match the specification of the UNFCCC reporting guidelines for National Inventory Reports. Common Reporting Format Table Compilation The CRF tables are compiled from individual tables completed by each individual source lead, which contain source emissions and activity data. The inventory coordinator integrates the source data into the UNFCCC’s “CRF Reporter” for the United States, assuring consistency across all sectoral tables. The summary reports for emissions, methods, and emission factors used, the overview tables for completeness and quality of estimates, the recalculation tables, the notation key completion tables, and the emission trends tables are then completed by the inventory coordinator. Internal automated quality checks on the CRF Reporter, as well as reviews by the source leads, are completed for the entire time series of CRF tables before submission. QA/QC and Uncertainty QA/QC and uncertainty analyses are supervised by the QA/QC and uncertainty coordinators, who have general oversight over the implementation of the QA/QC plan and the overall uncertainty analysis for the Inventory (see sections on QA/QC and Uncertainty, below). These coordinators work closely with the source leads to ensure that a consistent QA/QC plan and uncertainty analysis is implemented across all inventory sources. The inventory QA/QC plan, detailed in a following section, is consistent with the quality assurance procedures outlined by EPA and IPCC. The QA/QC and uncertainty findings also inform overall improvement planning, and specific improvements are noted in the Planned Improvements sections of respective categories. Expert and Public Review Periods During the Expert Review period, a first draft of the document is sent to a select list of technical experts outside of EPA. The purpose of the Expert Review is to encourage feedback on the methodological and data sources used in the current Inventory, especially for sources which have experienced any changes since the previous Inventory. Once comments are received and addressed, a second draft of the document is released for public review by publishing a notice in the U.S. Federal Register and posting the document on the EPA Web site. The Public Review period allows for a 30 day comment period and is open to the entire U.S. public. Comments may require further discussion with experts or research, and specific Inventory improvements requiring further analysis as a result comments are noted in categories Planned Improvement sections. See those sections for specific details. Final Submittal to UNFCCC and Document Printing After the final revisions to incorporate any comments from the Expert Review and Public Review periods, EPA prepares the final National Inventory Report and the accompanying Common Reporting Format Reporter database. The U.S. Department of State sends the official submission of the U.S. Inventory to the UNFCCC. The document is then formatted and posted online, available for the public. 1 1 See . 1-14 DRAFT Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2015

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    1 Table 3-4: CO2, CH4, and N2O Emis

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    1 Figure 3-3: 2015 U.S. Energy Cons

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    1 2 Figure 3-6: Annual Deviations f

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    U.S. Territories a 28.0 50.1 41.7 4

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    Fuel Oil 27.2 45.6 36.7 37.6 37.1 3

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    1 Figure 3-9: Electricity Generatio

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    1 Figure 3-11: Industrial Productio

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    1 Figure 3-13: Sales of New Passeng

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    Medium- and Heavy-Duty 0.5 0.9 0.7

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    1 2 Figure 3-15: U.S. Energy Consum

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    Coal b 1,653.7 1,596.3 1,809.1 -3%

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    1 2 Table 3-17: Approach 2 Quantita

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    1 Table 3-20: Adjusted Consumption

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    1 2 3 4 percent above the 2014 emis

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    Gas/Waste Product 1990 2005 2011 20

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 waste

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    1 2 3 4 5 due to the higher CH 4 co

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    Activity 1990 2005 2011 2012 2013 2

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 approach over the t

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    Previous Estimated Emissions from S

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    Emissions (w/o Plunger) (MT) 372,28

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    Reciprocating Compressors 64,413 64

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    1 Table 3-72: Woody Biomass Consump

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    CO2 206.8 189.9 172.9 169.6 171.5 1

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    SF6 1 1 + + + + + Electrical Transm

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    2012 13.8 13,785 2013 14.0 14,028 2

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    1 2 3 MMT CO 2 Eq. (10,828 kt) (see

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    1 Table 4-19: CO2 Emissions from Am

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    1 Table 4-24: Urea Production, Urea

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    2012 10.5 35 2013 10.7 36 2014 10.9

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    2015 4.3 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

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    1 2 Table 4-31: Approach 2 Quantita

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The activity data

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The results of th

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    2013 4.1 0.3 2014 5.0 0.3 1 2 3 4 5

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 discussion of CO 2

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    1 2 Table 4-56: Approach 2 Quantita

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 (i.e.

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    1 Table 4-67: Material Carbon Conte

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    1 2 Table 4-70: Production and Cons

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    1 Table 4-89: CO2 Emissions from Zi

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 4.23 Substi

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    Graphic Arts + 0 0 0 0 0 0 Non-Indu

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    Note that the relative uncertainty

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    + Does not exceed 0.05 MMT CO2 Eq.

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Agricultural soil

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 low in many parts

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    1 Table 5-21: Emissions from Liming

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    1 2 Table 5-32: Key Assumptions for

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    Land Converted to Forest Land (92.0

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    1 2 Table 6-7: Land Use and Land-Us

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    1 2 Harvested wood products (HWP)

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    1 2 Figure 6-2: Changes in Forest A

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    Note: Forest C stocks do not includ

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    1 2 3 Total Aboveground Biomass Flu

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    Belowground Live Biomass 2.3 2.0 2.

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    1 2 Table 6-34: Net CO2 Flux from S

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    1 2 3 4 5 above the 2015 stock chan

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    CH4 0.1 0.3 0.8 0.6 0.2 0.4 0.4 N2O

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    Other Lands Converted Grassland Min

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    On-site 70 71 60 53 50 50 49 N2O (O

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    1 2 Table 6-51: Net CH4 Flux from V

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    1 2 3 Table 6-54: Approach 1 Quanti

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    1 2 3 4 result in cessation of emis

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    New Mexico 70,608 52,250 12.0 0.263

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    C Storage Factor, Proportion of Ini

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    1 Table 7-2: Emissions from Waste (

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Table 7-6 pres

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    2013 321 10,536 2014 323 10,613 201

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 %Plants a %Plants

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Quality manual for the greenhouse gas inventory. Version 1.
D - Inventory of Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Abengoa
Use of Models and Facility-Level Data in Greenhouse Gas Inventories
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory for Chapel Hill Street Lights ...
international maritime transport and greenhouse gas emissions - IMO
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Heavy-Duty Trucks
Building trust in greenhouse gas inventories from the United ... - WWF
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Transportation - Center for ...
Greenhouse Gas Emission Policies Is There a Way ... - Castalia
Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Septic ... - Geoflow
2009 Corporate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory - the Town of ...
Greenhouse gas emissions from production of imported and ... - Inra
Annual European Community greenhouse gas inventory 1990-2003
City of Richmond 2008 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory
Expert Meeting on Uncertainty and Validation of Emission Inventories
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Agriculture and Forestry: A ...
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Report - Cal Poly Pomona
Projection of Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2010 to 2030
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Outlooks and Scenarios, Dolf ... - IPIECA
Amendments to UK greenhouse gas emissions trading ... - Gov.UK
Reducing US Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Center for Climate and ...
Aspen-Pitkin County Airport Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory ...
Reducing U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Center for Climate and ...
Annual Danish Informative Inventory Report to UNECE. Emission ...
Danish emission inventories for road transport and other mobile ...
Typico plc Greenhouse Gas Emissions Report – 2009 - PwC
Predicting Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Flares - SCS Global ...